The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought


Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought book. Happy reading The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought Pocket Guide.
How To Order Title

Yesterday I sketched an argument for believing that all access-conscious thinking is sensory based. But suppose this conclusion is wrong. Suppose there is some sort of workspace in which amodal nonsensory thoughts — judgments, goals, decisions, intentions, and the rest — can become active and be conscious. What would one …. One argument for the view that all access-consciousness depends upon sensory representations is an inference to the best explanation or rather, a series of them that brings together recent work on consciousness with recent work on working memory.

Box-plot representing the data distribution for the number of correct initial and final stimuli in WM tasks for left-branching LB and right-branching RB participants from a generalized linear mixed model GLMM. Box-plot representing the data distribution for the number of correct initial and final stimuli in STM tasks with numeric, spatial and word stimuli from a generalized linear mixed model GLMM. As predicted, LB and RB speakers were significantly different in their ability to recall initial and final stimuli, showing a clear link between branching direction and working memory WM.

In WM tasks, LB participants were better than RB participants at recalling initial stimuli and RB were better at recalling final stimuli , and this pattern held for each language separately with the exception of Sidaama. Sidaama was the only language failing to follow this pattern, but there are at least two reasons as to why this might be the case. Firstly, all languages were consistently RB or LB according to four word order criteria see Methods , with the exception of Sidaama, for which the clause-subordinate order follows no consistent branching direction Secondly, the Sidaama participants that we tested were the most secluded group compared to all other populations tested, and in contrast to the other tested groups they had had little to no previous contact with technologies including laptops and audio-recorders.

These results are not surprising, as Japanese- and Korean-speakers were mostly students, with a much higher familiarity with being tested on computers than most other participants. Such a higher familiarity likely resulted in overall better performance see e. One plausible explanation is that only WM has an active role in language and sentence processing e. Moreover, while WM tasks largely reflect a domain-general factor, STM tasks tend to be much more domain specific Therefore, the effect of language on non-linguistic cognition might be more limited in STM tasks.

Finally, it is also possible that the effect of branching direction on performance in WM but not STM tasks depends on output interference i. In contrast, the link between branching and performance in WM tasks held regardless of the stimuli used i.

This may be surprising, because branching direction may be expected to more likely predict performance in verbal rather than spatial WM tasks, as only the former selectively tap capacities which are essential for sentence processing. However, although spatial and verbal memory are usually considered two different WM components, it is to date unclear how easily transfers take place between these different components. Transfer from WM training in the lab, for instance, is generally limited see , but there is evidence that interventions improving verbal WM may also have benefits that transfer to spatial WM e.

Moreover, it is interesting to note that several participants across different linguistic groups both RB and LB spontaneously reported, at the end of the tasks, to have coded spatial information on the grid as numerical information: instead of visualizing and later recalling the spatial position of the red square in WM spatial tasks, they reported to have attributed sequential numbers to the squares on the grid, so that the number corresponding to the red square was kept in memory and later recalled.

This approach may have transformed a classic spatial task into a more verbal one, which may be more likely subject to branching effects. Taken together, our results suggest that the link between language and thought might not be just confined to conceptual representations and semantic biases, but rather extend to syntactic structures and the very sequential processing of information. Specific characteristics of a language appear to predict not only the way we perceive and conceptualize the world see 9 , but also the way we process, store and retrieve information.

This is especially relevant, as the ability to maintain sequential information in working memory is crucial for a wide range of higher cognitive functions, including reading, problem-solving, decision-making and planning 2 , 80 , 81 , 85 , , , Therefore, the need to parse sentences in a specific direction, day by day, might affect our way to remember words and other stimuli also in a non-linguistic context. This is in line with previous findings, showing that extensive experience, like biologically relevant behaviors engaging higher cognitive functions e.

In future work, the inclusion of languages with mixed branching and free word order, while controlling for the frequency of non-canonical word order in each language, would likely provide valuable further insights into the exact link between branching and memory. Free word order languages, in particular, seem to provide an especially interesting test for the linguistic relativity hypotheses: sentences containing the same words in a different order, for instance, appear to be considered repetitions by speakers of free word order languages The fact that branching and word order may be linked to such a fundamental cognitive process like memory opens up new exciting avenues for psycholinguistic research towards expanding the pool of languages and populations investigated.

With more than languages in the world, we have a uniquely rich pool to study the relation between language and cognition. Preserving and investigating the wealth of this diversity is not only ethical, but also scientifically crucial to ultimately address the age-old question concerning the relation between language and thought.

Andrade, J. Memory - critical concepts in psychology Routledge, New York, Baddeley, A. Working memory Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, Ebbinghaus, H. Atkinson, R.

Peter Carruthers (University of Maryland, College Park) - PhilPeople

The control of short term memory. The sandwich effect: the role of attentional factors in serial recall. Cogn 19 , — Bousfield, W. Murdock, B. The serial position effect of free recall. Henrich, J. The weirdest people in the world? Evans, N. The myth of language universals: language diversity and its importance for cognitive science. Chomski, N. Fodor, J. The language of thought Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Jackendoff, R. Foundations of language: brain , meaning , grammar , evolution Oxford Univ. Pinker, S. The language instinct W. Morrow and Co.

Bowerman, M. Cambridge Univ. Gumperz, J. Levinson, S. Space in language and cognition: explorations in cognitive diversity Cambridge Univ. Lucy, J. Grammatical categories and thought: a case study of the linguistic relativity hypothesis Cambridge Univ. Slobin, D. In Re-thinking linguistic relativity eds Gumperz, J.


  • Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems XX: Special Issue on Advanced Techniques for Big Data Management!
  • Quantum Mechanics (2nd Edition).
  • First Bite: How We Learn to Eat!
  • The New Astronomy: Opening the Electromagnetic Window and Expanding Our View of Planet Earth: A Meeting to Honor Woody Sullivan on his 60th Birthday;
  • Hilbert Space Methods in Quantum Mechanics.
  • There Is No Such Thing as Conscious Thought | RealClearScience.
  • Health and Social Change in Russia and Eastern Europe.

Whorf, B. Language, thought, and reality: selected writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf ed. Carroll, J. MIT Press, Cambridge, Wolff, P. Linguistic relativity. WIREs Cogn. Brighton, H. In Language origins: perspectives on evolution ed. Tallerman, M. Christiansen, M. Smith, K.

The Science of Thinking

Cultural evolution: implications for understanding the human language faculty and its evolution. B Biol. Thinking for speaking. Berkeley Ling. Boroditsky, L. Does language shape thought? Hunt, E. The Whorfian hypothesis: a cognitive psychology perspective. Gilbert, A. Whorf hypothesis is supported in the right visual field but not the left. Kay, P. What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis? Regier, T. Language, thought, and color: Whorf was half right.

Trends Cogn. Robertson, D. Color categories are not universal: Replications and new evidence from a stone-age culture. Winawer, J. Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination. Casasanto, D.

Review ARTICLE

Science , — Gelman, R. Language and the origin of numerical concepts. Gordon, P. Numerical cognition without words: evidence from Amazonia. Pica, P. Exact and approximate arithmetic in an Amazonian indigene group. Spelke, E. Language and number: a bilingual training study. Cognition 78 , 45—88 Gentner, D. Spatial language facilitates spatial cognition: evidence from children who lack language input.

Cognition , — Haun, D. Cognitive cladistics and cultural override in Hominid spatial cognition. Li, P. Turning the tables: language and spatial reasoning.

Introduction

Cognition 83 , — Majid, A. Can language restructure cognition? The case for space. How deep are effects of language on thought? Time estimation in speakers of English, Indonesian, Greek, and Spanish. January, D. Re-evaluating evidence for linguistic relativity: reply to Boroditsky With the future behind them: convergent evidence from Aymara language and gesture in the crosslinguistic comparison of spatial construals of time. Odors are expressible in language, as long as you speak the right language.

Pyers, J. Language promotes false-belief understanding evidence from learners of a new sign language. The interface of language and theory of mind.

There Is No Such Thing as Conscious Thought

Lingua , — Percy, E. Cognition and native-language grammar: the organizational role of adjective-noun word order in information representation. Mata, A. Adjective-noun order as representational structure: native-language grammar influences perception of similarity and recognition memory. Fausey, C. Subtle linguistic cues influence perceived blame and financial liability. Who dunnit? Cross-linguistic differences in eye-witness memory. Constructing agency: the role of language. Reines, M. Reviving Whorf: the return of linguistic relativity.

Tomlin, R. Basic word order: functional principles Croom Helm, London, Dryer, M. The Greenbergian word order correlations. Language 68 , 81— Greenberg, J. In Universals of language today eds Scalice, S. Hawkins, J. A performance theory of order and constituency Cambridge Univ. Mazuka, R. The development of language processing strategies: a cross-linguistic study between Japanese and English Psychology Press, New York, Vasishth, S. Short-term forgetting in sentence comprehension: crosslinguistic evidence from verb-final structures.

Frank, S.


  • Category: Peter Carruthers: The Centered Mind.
  • The word order of languages predicts native speakers’ working memory | Scientific Reports.
  • Tourism Development Revisited: Concepts, Issues and Paradigms;
  • Login using;
  • The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought.

Cross-linguistic differences in processing double-embedded relative clauses: working-memory constraints or language statistics? Judgements about double-embedded relative clauses differ between languages. Stivers, T. Universals and cultural variation in turn-taking in conversation. Natl Acad. USA , — Garrod, S. Why is conversation so easy? Pienemann, M. Frazier, L. The sausage machine: a new two-stage parsing model. Cognition 6 , — Gibson, E. Linguistic complexity: locality of syntactic dependencies. Cognition 68 , 1—76 Kemper, S. Friederici, A. Language, mind and brain.

Behav Lust, B. Child Lang. Studies in the acquisition of anaphora Kluwer, Boston, Jaeger, L. Working memory and prediction in human sentence parsing Doctoral Thesis, Univ. Nakatani, K. An on-line study of Japanese nesting complexity. Pickering, M. Do people use language production to make predictions during comprehension? Konieczny, L. Locality and parsing complexity. Levy, R. Expectation-based syntactic comprehension. Hale, J. A probabilistic Earley parser as a psycholinguistic model. North Am.

Conway, A. Unsworth, N. An automated version of the operation span task. In The psychology of learning and motivation: advances in research and theory ed. Bower, G. A latent variable analysis of working memory capacity, short term memory capacity, processing speed, and general fluid intelligence. Intelligence 30 , — Engle, R.

Working memory, short term memory and general fluid intelligence: a latent variable approach. Schneider, W. Controlled and automatic human information processing: I. Detection, search and attention. Working memory and language: an overview. Disorders 36 , — Vos, S. Intersentential syntactic context effects on comprehension: the role of working memory. Brain Res. Just, M. A capacity theory of comprehension: individual differences in working memory. MacDonald, M. Working memory constraints on the processing of syntactic ambiguity.

Daneman, M. Working memory and language comprehension: a meta-analysis. Individual differences in working memory and reading. Verbal Learn. Verbal Behav. Waters, G. The measurement of verbal working memory capacity and its relation to reading comprehension. Baayen, R.

The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought
The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought
The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought
The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought
The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought
The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought
The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought

Related The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought



Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved