More recently, traveling electromagnetic waves have been proposed to overcome the interference phenomena and nonuniformities of resonant fields to allow precise control and optimization of the MW field. To realize the latter, the plasma should be combined with a catalyst, 42 , 55 , 81 as mentioned above, because the plasma itself is too reactive an environment, and thus, produces a wealth of reactive species, which easily recombine to form new molecules, without any selectivity.
Plasma catalysis is mostly performed in a DBD reactor. In plasma catalytic reactors, the most common way to introduce the catalyst is by means of a packed bed, but other catalyst structures include coatings, powder, and monoliths. The integration of plasmas and catalysts allows an increase in the selectivity of the chemical reactions, while keeping the operating conditions at relatively low temperatures; this permits an increase in efficiency and diminishes the erosion and deactivation of both catalyst and electrodes. Nevertheless, it can also result in a decay of the catalytic action due to erosion and transformation of the active sites.
Thus, through the study of the dynamic evolution of the active species, it could be possible to obtain the residence times necessary for them to reach the solid. This approach could open up the opportunity for a classical design based on previous knowledge of the catalytic system, together with the study of the plasma conditions.
The energy efficiency of CO 2 conversion might be the major criterion in the search for optimal plasma reactor design. Indeed, under typical operating conditions of MW and GA plasmas, the electrons have sufficient energy to selectively excite CO 2 molecules into their lowest vibrational levels. Hence, the extra energy is a waste of energy, which explains the lower energy efficiency of a DBD. Therefore, it also has potential for industrial applications. The work of Fujishima and Honda introduced a catalytic system based on the combination of a semiconductor TiO 2 photocatalyst with Pt as a cocatalyst.
In most cases, simple batch cell designs based on the original design of Fujishima and Honda are used.
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Additionally, some researchers have used reactor designs based on common solar collectors, with slight modifications, such as the use of semipermeable covers. The complete set of reactions necessary to activate CO 2 including hydrogen generation from sustainable sources is energy intensive; at the same time, equilibrium and kinetics could limit the process. These conditions constitute challenges for the development of efficient processes that can be finally put in place to use RE.
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Drastic reductions in energy consumption and reaction times have been achieved through the concept of process intensification by the smart use of catalytic structures, reactor design, and operation or the application of nonconventional energy forms. Some advances in this sense are presently being made.
We have selected devices from the examples presented in previous sections. They are all based on the RWGS reaction for three main reasons: its endothermic nature energy storage ; the possibility of obtaining hydrogen from renewable sources sustainability ; and finally its compatibility with further industrial reactions, such as methanol synthesis or the FT process.
The devices are briefly introduced below. Better coupling and absorption of MW energy in the catalyst bed provide a more efficient process. These usually involve a compromise between conversion and energy efficiency. Conversion generally rises upon increasing applied power and a lower flow rate i. One novel direction is the synergetic plasma catalysis integration to try to find an optimal process.
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It is, however, not yet clear which catalyst materials would be the most effective in combination with the plasma conditions. Much research is underway, for instance, to investigate whether the plasma can be formed inside catalyst pores, thereby increasing the catalytic surface area being exposed to the plasma species activities. Simulation of microdischarge formations in porous catalyst structures.
It is also possible to integrate optical structures, local catalyst activation, and increased heat and mass transfer efficiency in microreactors. To do so, plasmonic catalytic composites based on mesoporous, transparent structures that allow high penetration of light silica aerogels were developed. Visual light activates the catalyst owing to the concentration of the electric field on the metallic nanoparticles provided by the plasmon phenomenon.
We have remarked herein how this concept goes far beyond the often limited consideration of reducing CO 2 emissions and store excess RE. On the other hand, it is necessary to understand better how to use alternative energy sources to thermal energy to drive catalytic transformations of CO 2. We have focused the discussion herein on MW, plasma, and light.
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In contrast with thermal catalysis, there is no established procedure for the design and scale up of chemical reactions when using RE through plasma, MW, or light. This is due to a lack of understanding of the intrinsic characteristics of electromagnetic transmission or plasma reactions and their interaction with materials by the chemical sciences community. Actually, it should be noted that the very fact that makes these technologies interesting, at the same time, causes nonuniformities and difficulties in design and scale up.
On the other hand, the degree of mixing or parameters, such as the Reynolds number is critical to obtain reproducible results. If the timescales are not constant, derivatization of the compounds and detrimental effects on yields could be observed. Timescales in heat delivery are key to obtaining reproducible and trustable reaction results. The bridge element in all of these technologies is the electric field, which is related to the geometry and dielectric properties of the material exposed, and thus, it will change with changing volume.
Because of this reason, the electric field has to be either measured or calculated by means of numerical simulations. The use of RE in the conversion of CO 2 in new and unconventional ways is at the nexus of this revolution. In , he developed the first microwave plasma gasification processes in the Chair of Intensified Reaction and Separation Systems of Delft University of Technology with the support of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. As postdoctoral researcher in the University of Valladolid has proposed and developed a new kind of microreactor that uses solar energy for CO 2 catalytic transformations and has patented a technology to store and release hydrogen in solid state.
He is interested in the development of new materials and devices that capture and store renewable energy. Volume 5 , Issue 6. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Energy Technology Volume 5, Issue 6.
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Abstract The use of renewable energy RE to transform carbon dioxide into commodities i. Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint.
Figure 3 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Reaction Conditions Reaction media Conversion Ref. Figure 4 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 5 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 6 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 10 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint.
Acknowledgements A. References 1 L. Barbato , G. Centi , G. Iaquaniello , A.
Mangiapane , S. Perathoner , Energy Technol. Wiley Online Library Google Scholar. Crossref Google Scholar. Google Scholar. CAS Google Scholar. Citing Literature.
Materials and process engineering
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