In the implementation of such reenacted ordinance, the local treasurer concerned shall exclude from the estimates of income for the preceding fiscal year those realized from nonrecurring sources, like national aids, proceeds from loans, sale of assets, prior year adjustments, and other analogous sources of income. No ordinance authorizing supplemental appropriations shall be passed in place of the annual appropriations. In case the revised income estimates be less than the aggregate reenacted appropriations, the local treasurer concerned shall accordingly advise the sanggunian concerned which shall, within ten 10 days from the receipt of such advice, make the necessary adjustments or reductions.
The revised appropriations authorized by the sanggunian concerned shall then be the basis for disbursements. Budgetary Requirements. General Limitations. The appropriations for salaries, wages, representation and transportation allowances of officials and employees of the public utilities and economic enterprises owned, operated, and maintained by the local government unit concerned shall not be included in the annual budget or in the computation of the maximum amount for personal services.
The appropriations for the personal services of such economic enterprises shall be charged to their respective budgets;. Discretionary funds shall be disbursed only for public purposes to be supported by appropriate vouchers and subject to such guidelines as may be prescribed by law. No amount shall be appropriated for the same purpose except as authorized under this Section.
If within ninety 90 days from receipt of copies of such ordinance, the sangguniang panlalawigan takes no action thereon, the same shall be deemed to have been reviewed in accordance with law and shall continue to be in full force and effect. If within the same period, the sangguniang panlalawigan shall have ascertained that the ordinance authorizing annual or supplemental appropriations has not complied with the requirements set forth in this Title, the sangguniang panlalawigan shall, within the ninety-day period hereinabove prescribed, declare such ordinance inoperative in its entirety or in part.
Items of appropriation contrary to limitations prescribed in this Title or in excess of the amounts prescribed herein shall be disallowed or reduced accordingly. The sangguniang panlalawigan shall within the same period advise the sangguniang panlungsod or sangguniang bayan concerned through the local chief executive of any action on the ordinance under review. Upon receipt of such advice, the city or municipal treasurer concerned shall not make further disbursements of funds from any of the items of appropriation declared inoperative, disallowed or reduced.
Duration of Appropriation. Preparation of the Barangay Budget. Effectivity of Barangay Budgets. The responsibility for the execution of the annual and supplemental budgets and the accountability therefor shall be vested primarily in the punong barangay concerned. Review of the Barangay Budget. The sanggunian concerned shall have the power to review such ordinance in order to ensure that the provisions of this Title are complied with.
If within sixty 60 days after the receipt of the ordinance, the sanggunian concerned takes no action thereon, the same shall continue to be in full force and effect. If within the same period, the sanggunian concerned shall have ascertained that the ordinance contains appropriations in excess of the estimates of the income duly certified as collectible, or that the same has not complied with the budgetary requirements set forth in this Title, the said ordinance shall be declared inoperative in its entirety or in part.
Items of appropriation contrary to, or in excess of, any of the general limitations or the maximum amount prescribed in this Title shall be disallowed or reduced accordingly. Upon receipt of such advice, the barangay treasurer or the city or municipal treasurer who has custody of the funds shall not make further disbursement from any item of appropriation declared inoperative, disallowed, or reduced. Barangay Financial Procedures. He may collect real property taxes and such other taxes as may be imposed by a province, city or municipality that are due in his barangay only after being deputized by the local treasurer concerned for the purpose.
Representatives of the Commission on Audit shall audit such accounts annually or as often as may be necessary and make a report of the audit to the sangguniang panlungsod or sangguniang bayan, as the case may be. The Commission on Audit shall prescribe and put into effect simplified procedures for barangay finances within six 6 months following the effectivity of this Code. Use of Appropriated Funds and Savings. No ordinance shall be passed authorizing any transfer of appropriations from one item to another. However, the local chief executive or the presiding officer of the sanggunian concerned may, by ordinance, be authorized to augment any item in the approved annual budget for their respective offices from savings in other items within the same expense class of their respective appropriations.
Restriction Upon Limit of Disbursements. In case of emergency arising from a typhoon, earthquake, or any other calamity, the sanggunian concerned may authorize the local treasurer to continue making disbursements from any local fund in his possession in excess of the limitations herein provided, but only for such purposes and amounts included in the approved annual budgets.
Any overdraft which may be incurred at the end of the year in any local fund by virtue of the provisions hereof shall be covered with the first collections of the immediately succeeding fiscal year accruing to such local fund. Prohibitions Against Advance Payments. Cash Advances. Persons Accountable for Local Government Funds. Other local officers who, though not accountable by the nature of their duties, may likewise be similarly held accountable and responsible for local government funds through their participation in the use or application thereof.
Prohibitions Against Pecuniary Interest. The superior officer directing, or the department head participating in such illegal or improper use or application or deposit of government funds or property, shall be jointly and severally liable with the local treasurer, accountant, budget officer, or other accountable officer for the sum or property so illegally or improperly used, applied or deposited.
Prohibition Against Expenses for Reception and Entertainment. Certification on, and Approval of, Vouchers. Vouchers and payrolls shall be certified to and approved by the head of the department or office who has administrative control of the fund concerned, as to validity, propriety, and legality of the claim involved. Except in cases of disbursements involving regularly recurring administrative expenses such as payrolls for regular or permanent employees, expenses for light, water, telephone and telegraph services, remittances to government creditor agencies such as the GSIS, SSS, LBP, DBP, National Printing Office, Procurement Service of the DBM and others, approval of the disbursement voucher by the local chief executive himself shall be required whenever local funds are disbursed.
In cases of special or trust funds, disbursements shall be approved by the administrator of the fund. In case of temporary absence or incapacity of the department head or chief of office, the officer next-in-rank shall automatically perform his function and he shall be fully responsible therefor. In case of temporary absence or incapacity of the foregoing officials, these duties shall devolve upon their immediate assistants. Disbursements of Local Funds and Statement of Accounts. Within thirty 30 days after the close of each month, the local accountant shall furnish the sanggunian with such financial statements as may be prescribed by the Commission on AuditIn the case of the year-end statement of accounts, the period shall be sixty 60 days after the thirty-first 31st of December.
Rendition of Accounts. Provincial, city, and municipal auditors shall certify the balances arising in the accounts settled by them to the Chairman of the Commission on Audit and to the local treasurer, accountant, and other accountable officers. Copies of the certification shall be prepared and furnished other local officers who may be held jointly and severally liable for any loss or illegal, improper or unauthorized use or misappropriation of local funds or property.
Auditorial Visitation. In case an examination of the accounts of a local treasurer discloses a shortage in cash which should be on hand, it shall be the duty of the examining officer to seize the office and its contents, notify the Commission on Audit, the local chief executive concerned, and the local accountant. Thereupon, the examining officer shall immediately turn over to the accountable officer next-in- rank in the local treasury service, unless the said officer is likewise under investigation, the office of the treasurer and its contents, and close and render his accounts on the date of turnover.
In case the accountable officer next in rank is under investigation, the auditor shall take full possession of the office and its contents, close and render his accounts on the date of taking possession, and temporarily continue the public business of such office until such time that the local treasurer is restored or a successor has been duly designated. The local treasurer or accountable officer found with such shortage shall be automatically suspended from office.
Accounting for Revenues. Accounting for Obligations. General Liability for Unlawful Expenditures. Posting of the Summary of Income and Expenditures. The Official Fiscal Year. Administrative Issuances; Budget Operations Manual. General Rule in Procurement or Disposal. Supplies which have become unserviceable or no longer needed shall be sold, whenever applicable, at public auction, subject to applicable rules and regulations. Requirement of Requisition. Officers Having Authority to Draw Requisitions. Approval of Requisitions. Call for Bids. The call for bids shall show the complete specifications and technical descriptions of the required supplies and shall embody all terms and conditions of participation and award, terms of delivery and payment, and all other covenants affecting the transaction.
In all calls for bids, the right to waive any defect in the tender as well as the right to accept the bid most advantageous to the government shall be reserved. In no case, however, shall failure to meet the specifications or technical requirements of the supplies desired be waived.
Publication of Call for Bids. The notice of the bidding may likewise be published in a newspaper of general circulation in the territorial jurisdiction of the local government unit concerned when the provincial or city general services officer or the municipal or barangay treasurer, as the case may be, deems it necessary in order to obtain the lowest responsible and complying bid. The opening of bids shall only be made in the presence of the provincial or city auditor or his duly authorized representative who shall initial and secure copies of the bids and certify the abstract of the bidding.
The Committee on Awards. The Committee on Awards shall be composed of the local chief executive as chairman, the local treasurer, the local accountant, the local budget officer, the local general services officer, and the head of office or department for whose use the supplies are being procured, as members. In case a head of office or department would sit in a dual capacity, a member of the sanggunian elected from among its members shall sit as a member. The committee on awards at the barangay level shall be the sangguniang barangay. No national official shall sit as a member of the committee on awards.
The results of the bidding shall be made public by conspicuously posting the same in the provincial capitol or city, municipal, or barangay hall. Rule on Awards. Procurement Without Public Bidding. Procurement through Personal Canvass. The award shall be decided by the Committee on Awards. Purchases under this Section shall not exceed the amounts specified hereunder for all items in any one 1 month for each local government unit: chanrobles virtual law library.
The goods or services procured under this Section must be utilized or availed of within fifteen 15 days from the date of delivery or availability. Without prejudice to criminal prosecution under applicable laws, the local chief executive, the head of department, or the chief of office making the procurement shall be administratively liable for any violation of this Section and shall be a ground for suspension or dismissal from service.
Negotiated Purchase. Delivery of purchase orders or utilization of repair orders pursuant to this Section shall be made within seven 7 days after placement of the same. Immediately after the negotiated purchase or repair order is made, the local chief executive concerned shall draw a regular requisition to cover the same which shall contain the following: chanrobles virtual law library. Procurement from Duly Licensed Manufacturer. Procurement from Exclusive Philippine Agents or Distributors. Procurement from Government Entities. In the latter case, prior authority from the Office of the President shall be required.
Annual Procurement Program. The local government units may augment the supplies and equipment provided by the Supreme Court to the lower courts located in their respective jurisdictions. A violation of this Section shall be a ground for suspension or dismissal of any official or employee responsible therefor.
Establishment of an Archival System. Primary and Secondary Accountability for Government Property. The person or persons entrusted with the possession or custody of government property under the accountability of any head of department or office shall be immediately accountable to such officer.
An officer who fails to comply with this requirement shall not be relieved of liability or allowed credit for any such loss in the settlement of his accounts. In any case when the allowance of credit is not within the competence of the provincial, city or municipal auditor, the application and evidence, with the recommendation of the auditor concerned, shall be forwarded to the Chairman of the Commission on Audit for his appropriate action.
Property Disposal. If found valuable, the same shall be sold at public auction to the highest bidder under the supervision of the committee on awards and in the presence of the provincial, city or municipal auditor or his duly authorized representative. Negotiated Sale of Property.
Chapter four. Barrow, South, and Tillotson
In case of real property, the disposal shall be subject to the approval of the Commission on Audit regardless of the value or cost involved. Transfer Without Cost. Such transfer shall be subject to the approval of the sanggunian concerned making the transfer and by the head of the office, agency, subdivision, instrumentality or local government unit receiving the property. In case the machinery or equipment is sold within the five-year period, the purchasers or recipients shall be considered the importers thereof, and shall be liable for duties and taxes computed on the book value of such importation.
Manner of Creation. In the case of the creation of barangays by the sangguniang panlalawigan, the recommendation of the sangguniang bayan concerned shall be necessary. Requisites for Creation. To enhance the delivery of basic services in the indigenous cultural communities, barangays may be created in such communities by an Act of Congress, notwithstanding the above requirement.
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The territory need not be contiguous if it comprises two 2 or more islands. The plan shall be submitted to the sangguniang panlalawigan or sangguniang panlungsod concerned for appropriate action. In the case of municipalities within the Metropolitan Manila area and other metropolitan political subdivisions, the barangay consolidation plan shall be prepared and approved by the sangguniang bayan concerned. The sangguniang barangay may form community brigades and create such other positions or offices as may be deemed necessary to carry out the purposes of the barangay government in accordance with the needs of public service, subject to the budgetary limitations on personal services prescribed under Title Five, Book II of this Code.
Persons in Authority. Powers, Duties, and Functions. The proceeds from such activities shall be tax-exempt and shall accrue to the general fund of the barangay: Provided, That in the appropriation thereof, the specific purpose for which such fund-raising activity has been held shall be first satisfied: Provided, further, That no fund-raising activities shall be held within a period of sixty 60 days immediately preceding and after a national or local election, recall, referendum, or plebiscite: Provided, finally, That said fund-raising activities shall comply with national policy standards and regulations on morals, health, and safety of the persons participating therein.
The sangguniang barangay, through the punong barangay, shall render a public accounting of the funds raised at the completion of the project for which the fund-raising activity was under- taken;. Other Duties of Sangguniang Barangay Members. Benefits of Barangay Officials.
He may likewise avail of such educational benefits in a state college or university located within the province or city to which the barangay belongs; and cralaw. The appointment of the barangay treasurer shall not be subject to attestation by the Civil Service Commission. Other Appointive Officials. The punong barangay, or in his absence, the sangguniang barangay member acting as punong barangay, or any assembly member selected during the meeting, shall act as presiding officer in all the meetings of the assembly.
The barangay secretary, or in his absence, any member designated by the presiding officer to act as secretary, shall discharge the duties of secretary of the barangay assembly. Powers of the Barangay Assembly. Such notice shall be posted in three 3 conspicuous places in the barangay continuously for a period of not less than three 3 weeks;. Appointments shall be in writing, signed by the punong barangay, and attested to by the barangay secretary. Oath and Term of Office.
He shall hold office until a new lupon is constituted on the third year following his appointment unless sooner terminated by resignation, transfer of residence or place of work, or withdrawal of appointment by the punong barangay with the concurrence of the majority of all the members of the lupon. Functions of the Lupon. Secretary of the Lupon. He shall record the results of mediation proceedings before the punong barangay and shall submit a report thereon to the proper city or municipal courts.
He shall also receive and keep the records of proceedings submitted to him by the various conciliation panels. Pangkat ng Tagapagkasundo. Should the parties fail to agree on the pangkat membership, the same shall be determined by lots drawn by the lupon chairman. The secretary shall prepare the minutes of the pangkat proceedings and submit a copy duly attested to by the chairman to the lupon secretary and to the proper city or municipal court.
He shall issue and cause to be served notices to the parties concerned. The lupon secretary shall issue certified true copies of any public record in his custody that is not by law otherwise declared confidential. Vacancies in the Pangkat. Should the parties fail to agree on a common choice, the vacancy shall be filled by lot to be drawn by the lupon chairman. Character of Office and Service of Lupon Members. The Department of the Interior and Local Government shall provide for a system of granting economic or other incentives to the lupon or pangkat members who adequately demonstrate the ability to judiciously and expeditiously resolve cases referred to them.
While in the performance of their duties, the lupon or pangkat members, whether in public or private employment, shall be deemed to be on official time, and shall not suffer from any diminution in compensation or allowance from said employment by reason thereof.
The court in which non-criminal cases not falling within the authority of the lupon under this Code are filed may, at any time before trial, motu proprio refer the case to the lupon concerned for amicable settlement. Objections to venue shall be raised in the mediation proceedings before the punong barangay; otherwise, the same shall be deemed waived. Any legal question which may confront the punong barangay in resolving objections to venue herein referred to may be submitted to the Secretary of Justice, or his duly designated representative, whose ruling thereon shall be binding.
Procedure for Amicable Settlement. If he fails in his mediation effort within fifteen 15 days from the first meeting of the parties before him, he shall forthwith set a date for the constitution of the pangkat in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter. The prescriptive periods shall resume upon receipt by the complainant of the complaint or the certificate of repudiation or of the certification to file action issued by the lupon or pangkat secretary: Provided, however, That such interruption shall not exceed sixty 60 days from the filing of the complaint with the punong barangay.
For this purpose, the pangkat may issue summons for the personal appearance of parties and witnesses before it. In the event that a party moves to disqualify any member of the pangkat by reason of relationship, bias, interest, or any other similar grounds discovered after the constitution of the pangkat, the matter shall be resolved by the affirmative vote of the majority of the pangkat whose decision shall be final.
Should disqualification be decided upon, the resulting vacancy shall be filled as herein provided for. This period shall, at the discretion of the pangkat, be extendible for another period which shall not exceed fifteen 15 days, except in clearly meritorious cases. Form of Settlement. When the parties to the dispute do not use the same language or dialect, the settlement shall be written in the language or dialect known to them. Such agreement to arbitrate may be repudiated within five 5 days from the date thereof for the same grounds and in accordance with the procedure hereinafter prescribed.
The arbitration award shall be made after the lapse of the period for repudiation and within ten 10 days thereafter. When the parties to the dispute do not use the same language or dialect, the award shall be written in the language or dialect known to them. Proceedings Open to the Public; Exception. Appearance of Parties in Person. Effect of Amicable Settlement and Arbitration Award.
However, this provision shall not apply to court cases settled by the lupon under the last paragraph of Section of this Code, in which case the compromise settlement agreed upon by the parties before the lupon chairman or the pangkat chairman shall be submitted to the court and upon approval thereof, have the force and effect of a judgment of said court. After the lapse of such time, the settlement may be enforced by action in the appropriate city or municipal court.
Such repudiation shall be sufficient basis for the issuance of the certification for filing a complaint as hereinabove provided. Transmittal of Settlement and Arbitration Award to the Court. Power to Administer Oaths. Administration; Rules and Regulations. The Secretary of Justice shall promulgate the rules and regulations necessary to implement this Chapter.
Katipunan ng Kabataan. Meetings of the Katipunan ng Kabataan. Powers and Functions of the Sangguniang Kabataan. Meetings of the Sangguniang kabataan. Special meetings may be called by the sangguniang kabataan chairman or any three 3 of its members by giving written notice to all members of the date, time, place, and agenda of the meeting at least one 1 day in advance.
Notices of regular or special meetings shall be furnished the punong barangay and the sangguniang barangayA majority of the members of the sangguniang kabataan shall constitute a quorum. Sangguniang Kabataan Chairman. As such, he shall exercise the same powers, discharge the same duties and functions, and enjoy the same privileges as the regular sangguniang barangay members, and shall be the chairman of the committee on youth and sports development in the said sanggunian.
Powers and Duties of the Sangguniang Kabataan Chairman. Sangguniang Kabataan Secretary. Sangguniang Kabataan Treasurer. Privileges of Sangguniang Kabataan Officials. During their incumbency, sangguniang kabataan officials shall be exempt from payment of tuition and matriculation fees while enrolled in public tertiary schools, including state colleges and universities. The national government shall reimburse said college or university the amount of the tuition and matriculation fees: Provided, That, to qualify for the privilege, the said officials shall enroll in the state college or university within or nearest their area of jurisdiction.
Succession and Filling of Vacancies. In case the said member refuses to assume the position or fails to qualify, the sanggunian member obtaining the next highest number of votes shall assume the position of the chairman for the unexpired portion of the term. Such sangguniang kabataan member shall hold office for the unexpired portion of the term of the vacant seat. Constitution and By-Laws. Membership in the Sanggunian. During said week, they shall hold office as boy and girl officials and shall perform such duties and conduct such activities as may be provided in the ordinance enacted pursuant to this Chapter.
Except as may otherwise be provided in the said Act, the plebiscite shall be held within one hundred twenty days from the date of its effectivity. The requirement on land area shall not apply where the municipality proposed to be created is composed of one 1 or more islands. Existing municipal districts organized pursuant to presidential issuances or executive orders and which have their respective set of elective municipal officials holding office at the time of the effectivity of this Code shall henceforth be considered as regular municipalities.
The sangguniang bayan shall act on the appointment within fifteen 15 days from the date of its submission; otherwise, the same shall be deemed confirmed. Mayors of municipalities of the Metropolitan Manila Area and other metropolitan political subdivisions shall submit said reports to their respective metropolitan council chairmen and to the Office of the President;.
Failure to act on the application within the period stated above shall be deemed as approval thereof;. Except as may otherwise be provided in such Act, the plebiscite shall be held within one hundred twenty days from the date of its effectivity. The requirement on land area shall not apply where the city proposed to be created is composed of one 1 or more islands. Cities, Classified. Independent component cities are those component cities whose charters prohibit their voters from voting for provincial elective officials.
Independent component cities shall be independent of the province. Highly Urbanized Cities. If a component city is located within the boundaries of two 2 or more provinces, such city shall be considered a component of the province of which it used to be a municipality. Unless otherwise provided in the Constitution or this Code, qualified voters of independent component cities shall be governed by their respective charters, as amended, on the participation of voters in provincial elections.
Qualified voters of cities who acquired the right to vote for elective provincial officials prior to the classification of said cities as highly-urbanized after the ratification of the Constitution and before the effectivity of this Code, shall continue to exercise such right. Duty to Declare Highly Urbanized Status. The appointment of a city population officer shall be optional in the city: Provided, however, That cities which have existing population offices shall continue to maintain such offices for a period of five 5 years from the date of the effectivity of this Code, after which said offices shall become optional.
The sangguniang panlungsod shall act on the appointment within fifteen 15 days from the date of its submission, otherwise the same shall be deemed confirmed. The plebiscite shall be held within one hundred twenty days from the date of effectivity of said Act, unless otherwise provided therein. Provided, That, the creation thereof shall not reduce the land area, population, and income of the original unit or units at the time of said creation to less than the minimum requirements prescribed herein.
Existing Sub-Provinces. The plebiscite shall be conducted by the Comelec simultaneously with the national elections following the effectivity of this Code. The new legislative districts created as a result of such conversion shall continue to be represented in Congress by the duly-elected representatives of the original districts out of which said new provinces or districts were created until their own representatives shall have been elected in the next regular congressional elections and qualified. The incumbent elected officials of the said sub- provinces converted into regular provinces shall continue to hold office until June 30, Any vacancy occurring in the offices occupied by said incumbent elected officials, or resulting from expiration of their terms of office in case of a negative vote in the plebiscite results, shall be filled by appointment by the President.
The appointees shall hold office until their successors shall have been elected in the regular local elections following the plebiscite mentioned herein and qualified. After effectivity of such conversion, the President shall fill up the position of governor of the newly-created province through appointment if none has yet been appointed to the same as hereinbefore provided, and shall also appoint a vice-governor and the other members of the sangguniang panlalawigan, all of whom shall likewise hold office until their successors shall have been elected in the next regular local elections and qualified.
All qualified appointive officials and employees in the career service of the said subprovinces at the time of their conversion into regular provinces shall continue in office in accordance with civil service law, rules and regulations. The appointment of a provincial population officer shall be optional in the province: Provided, however, That provinces which have existing population offices shall continue to maintain such offices for a period of five 5 years from the date of the effectivity of this Code, after which said offices shall become optional.
The sangguniang panlalawigan shall act on the appointment within fifteen 15 days from the date of its submission; otherwise the same shall be deemed confirmed;. Residence and Office. All elective and appointive provincial officials shall hold office in the provincial capital: Provided, That, upon resolution of the sangguniang panlalawigan, elective and appointive provincial officials may hold office in any component city or municipality within the province for a period of not more than seven 7 days for any given month.
Powers, Duties, Functions and Compensation. The appointment of a secretary to the sanggunian is mandatory for provincial, city and municipal governments. He must have acquired experience in treasury or accounting service for at least five 5 years in the case of the city or provincial treasurer, and three 3 years in the case of the municipal treasurer.
The appointment of a treasurer shall be mandatory for provincial, city and municipal governments;. Assistant Treasurer. He must have acquired at least five 5 years experience in the treasury or accounting service in the case of the city or provincialassistant treasurer, and three 3 years in the case of the municipal assistant treasurer. The appointment of an assistant treasurer shall be optional for provincial, city and municipal governments;. He shall have authority to administer oaths concerning notices and notifications to those delinquent in the payment of the real property tax and concerning official matters relating to the accounts of the treasurer or otherwise arising in the offices of the treasurer and the assessor.
Assistant Assessor. He must have acquired experience in assessment or in any related field for at least three 3 years in the case of the city or provincial assistant assessor, and one 1 year in the case of the city or provincial assistant assessor. The appointment of an assistant assessor shall be optional for provincial, city and municipal governments. He shall have the authority to administer oaths on all declarations of real property for purposes of assessment. Thereafter, the appropriations for personal services of the budget officer shall be provided for in full in the budget of the local government unit.
The appointment of a population officer shall be optional in the local government unit: Provided, however, That provinces and cities which have existing population offices shall continue to maintain such offices for a period of five 5 years from the date of effectivity of this Code, after which said offices shall become optional. Representation, Chapters, National Liga.
The liga shall have chapters at the municipal, city, provincial and metropolitan political subdivision levels. The municipal and city chapters of the liga shall be composed of the barangay representatives of municipal and city barangays, respectively. The duly elected presidents of component municipal and city chapters shall constitute the provincial chapter or the metropolitan political subdivision chapter. The sermons printed below have been chosen because they deal with matters which were of central concern to the Anglican divines and which may be deemed to reflect important aspects of the thought of the day.
Such were the rise of infidelity and the danger of scoffing at religion, the problem of justifying faith, and the question of obedience to spiritual guides. The sermon on the Passion has been included because in it Barrow achieves greater intensity than is usual with him, and at times recalls the great Anglican divine who in his sermons as well as in his poems could make his hearers or readers realize the baffling nature of the central event in Christianity. The last rites at his burial were performed, as he had desired, by his friend Atterbury, former Dean of Christ Church, and now Bishop of Rochester, who was later to be involved in attempts to restore the Pretender and sentenced to banishment.
His collected Works, reissued first by his bookseller Jonah Bowyer and then by Jacob Tonson, included no biography; nor did the additional volumes published by Charles Bathurst in They delighted such men as Johnson 50 and Fielding 51 but were probably too much out of tune with the prevailing temper to be thought worthy of further editions.
Such was, in some circles at least, the inability of sermon readers to respond to wit and their ignorance of the events to which the sermons referred that this editor himself was unable to understand the sentence of South censured by his Evangelical critic:. That the study of the book of Revelation either found persons mad or made them so f. We shall be in little danger of feeling an improper bias from his decision, if we pay any deference to the judgment of the amiable and candid Doddridge, who thought his i.
If some of his utterances startle us, we must remember that our forefathers were not so mealy-mouthed as we are, and that congregations were used to hear a spade called a spade, even in the pulpit Instead, the mealy-mouthed triumphed; even though three collected editions of his sermons appeared in the nineteenth century 54 he is hardly known to the modern reader.
Yet as writer and thinker he may stand beside his fellow High-Churchman Swift, who like him dealt so many shrewd blows that he, too, failed to get preferment. And this, my Lord, is my unhappy case. For haveing, for now above these Fourty years , the Best, the Ablest, and most usefull part of my Age, not bin thought fitt by my Superiors, to serve the Crown or Church in any other way, or Station, than what I have held hitherto, I cannot, but in modesty and, even, in Respect to them judge myself unworthy, and unfitt to serve them in any higher, or greater Post now; being grown Equally superannuated to the Active , as well as Enjoying Part of Life.
Westminster Abbey, 8 June, , Nothing, my Lord, afflicts me more than that I am disabled from bringing your Honour, these my Acknowledgements and many more with them in Person my Self Nor should it be forgotten that he was expelled from the University after the second earl of Clarendon had sued him for libel of his father on the publication of his biographical dictionary in The Memoirs published by Curll is not wholly reliable either, and it ignores the aspersions of Wood.
In he was elected to Christ Church where Locke followed him the next year. It was during this public exercise that he was first seized with a qualm; henceforward, says Wood,. In South received ordination from a deprived bishop 65 and the next year he was incorporated M. Wood says that in his sermons at St. Not only does Wood brand South as a time-server, he further accuses him of turning informer to the royalists Wood reiterated these charges in other notes which were published in the Life and Times 67 ; needless to say, the anonymous Memoirs does not mention any such changes of allegiance.
If South did succeed in ingratiating himself with the new masters, Fell must have demurred when, in August , such a time-server was elected Public Orator of the University. Moreover, Clarendon who, as appears from recent research 73 , had actively prepared the Restoration settlement and kept in touch with loyal Churchmen during the Protectorate, and who was elected Chancellor of Oxford University in October , could hardly have failed to hear something of the intrigues of the man whom he appointed his Chaplain in If Wood alone was able to see through the mask, he must have been gifted with uncommon insight.
Rather, one feels, he was such a Paul Pry 76 that he was kept out of the secret counsels of the Churchmen who were busy preparing the future. If the printer had good authority for his texts, his anonymous biographer may also have had reliable information for the Life. For all these reasons, and in the absence of further evidence, it is safer at least to suspend judgement, especially since more recent experience of troubled times and conflicts of loyalties may incline the twentieth-century reader to take a less clear-cut view of the men who in the Interregnum had to decide how best to serve their Church.
As Bosher has shown in The Making of the Restoration Settlement , sincere Churchmen could argue with equal honesty and pertinency both for and against accepting modifications in the ritual so as to preserve the essentials of true worship; while some eminent Churchmen encouraged men to take the Engagement 77 others dissuaded them from it In this discourse—to which he gave the title Interest Deposed —he considered the many ways in which men deny Christ and His truths, and the causes of such denial, but he also discussed how far a man may consult his safety in time of persecution.
This must have been a dangerous theme for him to pitch upon if he had been a time-server, particularly in a place where he was well-known. He had reminded his audience at the outset that on sending out His ministers Christ had enjoined them to be both wise as serpents and harmless as doves. He had also availed himself of the occasion of his text to insist that Christ needed a learned and faithful ministry 81 , which may indeed have pleased the Presbyterians no less than the Anglicans among his hearers, but this is a theme to which South was to revert again and again, particularly in The Scribe Instructed , a sermon he preached at St.
South, who under Dr. Not all the supporters of a godly and faithful ministry were ignorant men, and South must have been aware that the Independent Dean of Christ Church, John Owen, was himself a learned man. None the less by casting a slur on human learning they sapped the basis of sound scholarship on which all explication of texts must be built. The Assize sermon may therefore be considered as a tract for the times. The drift of this sermon is that the Temple must be rebuilt; though the usurper Jeroboam in the text is clearly to be equated with Cromwell, there is little doubt as to how the Temple is to be rebuilt, i.
Here again, however, South directs his main attacks against those who claimed that human learning is not a necessary requisite for the ministry, i. Since, however, he considers the civil power as the mainstay of true religion—he states emphatically that the civil power cannot be subjected to the ecclesiastical power—; since he also blames the late confusions on the frequent innovations and changes which ultimately cast suspicion on religion, it is easy to guess that the Presbyterians too are responsible for the destruction of the Temple.
At this stage, however, South does not accuse them openly, and Anthony Wood may have thought that he was waiting to see which way the cat would jump before committing himself. Clarendon himself was to become Chancellor of the University in October, and the next year he appointed South his chaplain. According to Wood it was Clarendon who. In South was incorporated D. By then he had preached several times at Whitehall and at Westminster Abbey and was highly valued by Charles II, who made him one of his chaplains in ordinary.
As Public Orator of the University he had delivered a Latin speech to the King when he visited Oxford in , and again when the Court came to Oxford during the plague in , and he had also preached to the Queen on that occasion; he had delivered the funeral oration in Latin on the death of Archbishop Juxon in In May he had to congratulate Cosmo de Medici on behalf of the University, and in July he spoke at the dedication of the Sheldonian Theatre. In this speech he lavished praise on Archbishop Sheldon and on Wren, but his attack on the Royal Society as underminers of the Universities 92 i. The year after he was installed canon of Christ Church.
South resigned from the office of Public Orator in October 94 and on December 16, , he sent an account of his travels to his friend and fellow-canon at Christ Church, Edward Pocock, then Regius professor of Hebrew. This letter, published by Curll as part of the Memoirs , shows that South took an interest in the history and geography of the country he visited, in its religious and economic affairs, in the state of learning, in the laws, language and customs of the people, in the privileges and in the administration of the cities, etc.
Shortly after his return he became rector of Islip in Oxfords hire Indeed Thomas Hearne noted in his diary on 28 November, Dr South told Dr Hudson that he was resolved never to pocket a farthing of the income of the parsonage of Islip, and that he had already new built and beautified the chancel of the church, built a noble parsonage house, with outhouses and all other conveniences, both for the parson and tennant: and that besides he had all along sent several boys to schole, and bound them out to apprentiships, and has lately purchased some land to be settled upon the parish for ever, for these uses.
And that moreover he intended to lay out what he had received from his canonry of Christ Church, upon small vicarages, and as Dr Hudson inferred from something in his discourse, upon such vicarages as belonged to Christ Church He might, however, have mentioned that South was recommended for the see of Oxford in on the death of John Fell, since this was at least matter connected with the place whose history he was writing.
Ods fish , Lory, Your Chaplain must be a Bishop, therefore put me in mind of him at the next Death According to the author of the Memoirs , James also found South unacceptable when the Earl of Rochester proposed him as a champion of the cause of the Church against two Romanists nominated by the King, because then as always South denounced all attempts at toleration which were canvassed with equal zeal by both Papists and Dissenters.
On the death of John Fell, Evelyn noted in his diary that South was among the candidates for the bishopric of Oxford and the Deanery of Christ Church, but he added:. Dr Walker now apostatizing came to Court, and was doubtlesse very buisy It is easy to guess why such a staunch opponent of all indulgences was not acceptable to James II, but South seems to have been accused of having, in a letter shown to the King, reflected upon Obadiah Walker, Master of University College, who was celebrating mass in his College, for on 26 August he wrote to Sancroft to clear himself of the charge Bishop Kennett noted in his biographical memoranda that South.
The same view of Sherlock is reflected in a letter from Locke to Molyneux, dated 22 February, ; since Locke and South were exchanging friendly letters at the time South may have been the informant who told the author of the Essay what to think of his adversary South must have felt the more bitter when Sherlock was made Dean of St. He himself refused the offer of one of the sees vacated by the Non-Jurors in , declaring. In his sermons he repeatedly warned against the danger to the Church of altering the ritual so as to please the Nonconformists.
Tirelessly South denounced this danger and the fallacy of the plea of tender consciences. To him this was a repetition of the war waged earlier in the century against his beloved Church, and, not unnaturally, he fought with as much violence as he had in the sixties in order to preserve the Restoration settlement. In fact he was fighting a rearguard action which his former patron, Clarendon, would certainly have approved, and he was as much out of step with the then leaders of the hierarchy as the Lord Chancellor had been with the merry gang of Charles II.
No wonder he was bitter and discontented. But other matters also engaged his energy. Imprimatur, June 9, Unfortunately Sherlock was no trained controversialist, and his book did more harm than good to the cause he had espoused. South was quick to seize this opportunity to turn the tables on the man who had accused him of treachery. The Trinitarian controversy raged for several years until the King interposed February and directed the archbishops and bishops to allow no preacher to express any doctrine other than that contained in the three Creeds and in the Thirty-Nine Articles When South published the third volume of his collected sermons in , he referred, in the Epistle Dedicatory to Narcissus Boyle, Archbishop of Dublin, to the royal injunctions for composing disputes about the Trinity, and he glanced at the bishop who had debased his style and character so low as to defend the Tritheist.
Included in this volume was a sermon South had preached at Westminster Abbey in on Christianity Mysterious, and the Wisdom of God in Making it so , in which he not only refers to the many innovations and blasphemies against the Christian doctrine, as well as to the naked truths and naked gospels published in recent years, but clearly glances at Sherlock when he says:. One cannot help wondering if he had time to spare on that other controversy in which several Christ-Church men engaged at the time, and if so, whether he shared their views.
It was Henry Aldrich. His spirits must have revived on the accession of Queen Anne. If William had protected the Dissenters, the High-Church Queen might be counted upon to reverse his policy. The Tories were quick to launch an attack against the Act of Toleration, though some years went by before they could take the most decisive step against the Dissenters. South must have approved of the Schism Act , which aimed at destroying the Dissenting academies, for he chose to publish, as the first sermon in his fifth volume , a discourse on the virtuous education of youth which he had prepared to deliver at Westminster School in and in which he advocated the suppression of such academies He must also have welcomed the Occasional Conformity Bill , for in several sermons he had derided the men of tender conscience who did not scruple to conform occasionally in order to be allowed to hold office.
The death of the Queen and the final triumph of the Whigs must have shattered his hopes for ever, and we can well believe his biographer, who reports that on the death of Queen Anne, South told a friend. That it was time for him to prepare for his Journey to a blessed Immortality; since all that was Good, and Gracious, the very Breath of his Nostrils had made its Departure to the Regions of Bliss, and Eternal Happiness During the greatest part of the Reign of Queen Anne , he was in a State of Inactivity, and the Infirmities of Old Age growing upon him, he performed very little of the Duties of his Ministerial Function, otherwise than when his health would allow of his going to the Abbey Church at Westminster , to be present at Divine Service He could still be active in behalf of his friends or of High-Churchmen: we are told that he interceded in favour of Dr.
But when, on the death of Sprat in , he was offered the deanery of Westminster, South declined the honour and his friend Francis Atterbury, then Dean of Christ Church, became Dean of Westminster as well as Bishop of Rochester. Besides, he was then preparing his fourth volume of sermons for the press, and was to prepare two more before his death.
Sloane, the paralytic blow had bereft him of the plainness of his speech. It is equally clear from his sermons that he could never suffer fools gladly, and from his treatment of Sherlock that he could be merciless when striking at his adversaries.
http://www.inboundsportmarketing.com/components/trego/conocer-gente-de-canada-facebook.php Far from compounding disputes, he went out of his way to join issue with his enemies, whether dead or alive Yet, if he could not restrain his tongue nor forget an injury, if he was always ready to wound or rail, those he attacked appear to have been guilty in his eyes of more than personal offence. He had the temper of a crusader and dealt his blows without respect of persons, charging at any that seemed to him to insult at the honour due to the Church.
He was not the man to compromise; as his biographer says. His outright rejection of any plea for accommodation or toleration, his relentless opposition to any form of relief for men of a different persuasion, suggest the singleness of purpose of the Christian soldiers of an earlier generation. A staunch champion of unity in doctrine and discipline, he resisted the tide that was gathering momentum in this sceptical age, an age that was ultimately to learn the benefits of toleration. No wonder South felt stranded on a strange shore after the Whig revolution had triumphed; no wonder his bitterness increased and he felt discontented.
Whatever his prejudices, he must have had a mind of a high order to value the apostle of tolerance, and to have been thought worthy by him of perusing the new chapters of the Essay as they were written: far from joining in the outcry against the Essay , South ascribed the opposition to it to spite and envy, probably sensing rightly that Locke was being attacked, not for the philosophy he was expounding, but for being the author of The Reasonableness of Christianity.
If South was adamant on the subject of the Dissenters, if he refused to acknowledge the sincerity of their plea, it is probably because he formed his views at a time when the mere idea of toleration could not even be entertained, and he never changed his position. His wit was probably resented more deeply than his intolerance; among his fellow-Anglicans many were as ready as he was to have the Dissenters persecuted, but to him alone was paid the honour of being called the scourge of fanaticism.
Like Swift South has suffered for calling a spade a spade; even those who could appreciate his qualities often warned their readers that he was to be admired but not imitated It is a gift for thinking clearly and for expressing his thought with precision, in a nervous sentence, eschewing all decoration but often rendering it more concrete by a vivid metaphor; a gift for terse and pregnant statements in a closely argued demonstration as well as for lively images illuminating the meaning; a gift for the telling phrase that etches out the thought and drives it home with the swiftness and ease of an arrow.
For the movement is easy and natural, the syntax is that of speech so that the colloquial phrase comes as naturally as the exact definition; the proverb is as much at home in such discourse as the Scriptural or the homely metaphor, and the concrete image demonstrates as much as does the abstract reasoning. Though South had ample store of learning and had been trained in the subtle methods of the Schools, his sermons are unencumbered by pedantic references to authorities; these he merely mentions without giving chapter and verse for them, so that his demonstration moves along lightly.
He leaves out all superfluities, compressing instead of expanding, arguing instead of considering. Whereas Barrow develops all the places in his theme, South demonstrates the whys and wherefores, states the objections and refutes them: he is the dialectician setting forth the logical basis of his propositions, and rounding off his argument when he can write Q. Whereas Barrow forever amplifies, his sentences no less than his theme, South condenses even to epigrammatic brevity. Hence the impression of pungency and directness.
Sometimes he demonstrates by means of narrative, as he does in the sermon of 30 January; but here again his relation must be followed step by step for each point tells in the total effect. Of course he sometimes offers various reasons to establish one point, but in general they move gradually nearer to the centre or to a climax.
Not only does South rely on demonstration rather than authorities, but he eschews all unnecessary explications. He can apply his learning to the elucidation of a text and compare various versions of it, or define the exact meaning of a term on which he grounds his argument: most often, however, he grounds his explication on the plain meaning of the text as it appears from the context. His text is Prov. He first distinguishes between pleasure and sensuality, and refutes the notion that religion designs to make the world a great monastery since the aim of religion is not to thwart but to perfect nature.
He next faces the further objection that to pass from one state to the other is a laborious and irksome task. He therefore defines the nature of repentance, which implies both sorrow for sin and a change of life; but the sorrow is sweetened by the prospect of deliverance and the difficulty of changing lies in the first entrance into the new life.
After the explication he proceeds to develop the reasons to confirm the text, and he lists no less than sixteen of them: 1. Each of these points is amplified by means of further statements of the same kind or of examples. Characteristic of such a treatment is that the order in which the various considerations are listed hardly matters, and that many more could be added, though no present-day reader would wish Barrow had expanded further on this trite theme. The sermon gives the kind of rational pleasure it recommends as superior to mere sensuality: the argument is bracing, the outline clear; the thought moves forward, the style is direct and easy, whether in the compressed definitions of basic points or in the telling comparisons which bring the truths home to the reader Yet it is obvious that the often quoted example of the stillness of the sow at her wash is meant to produce the shock of recognition; not only is it proper in its context, but South was keeping due decorum in thus branding the pleasures of the epicure.
This, at least, was due decorum as understood by the true classicists, though it may have offended against the canons of propriety set up by an effete generation more concerned with airs and graces or with respectability. South has the same vigour as Latimer, though none of his roughness; like him he believed that congregations should be waked out of their torpor, both spiritual and physical. It would be like the stirring of a great Sink, which would be likelier to annoy, than to instruct the Auditory, to draw out from thence all the Pestilential Doctrines and Practices against the Royalty and Supremacy of Princes Such strong expressions were required by his theme for, as he said in a sermon on the Execution of Charles I:.
In my Reflexions upon which, if a just Indignation, or indeed even a due Apprehension of the blackest Fact, which the Sun ever saw, since he hid his Face upon the Crucifixion of our Saviour, chance to give an Edge to some of my Expressions, let all such know, the Guilt of whose Actions has made the very strictest Truths look like Satyrs, or Sarcasms, and bare Descriptions sharper than Invectives: I say, let such Censurers whose Innocence lies only in their Indemnity know, that to drop the blackest Ink, and the bitterest Gall upon this Fact, is not Satyr, but Propriety The Light within him [i.
So hard, or rather utterly unfeasible is it for Men to be zealous Votaries of the blind God , without losing their Eyes in his Service, and it is well if their Noses do not follow Luke XIX. Some of these phrases are hardly distinguishable from homely similes or proverbial expressions, which he uses with equal ease. This is an image he often uses to brand hypocrites of one kind or another ; though the phrase may sound humorous to-day it was still in current use at the time in its transferred sense and may have had no such effect; similarly, the Episcopal robe used as a napkin may sound jocular to men less familiar with Luke than with Matthew.
CHAPTER XXXIV. MOZART'S INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC.
One can easily imagine that he gave his telling phrases the necessary relief, especially when they came in an upsurge of passion, as they so often did. What is clear even to the modern reader is that his language has its roots in the common speech, not only of the gentlemen but of the people. He did use the precise abstract vocabulary of philosophy, but he could also draw on the fund of racy expressions which a later generation was to consider as vulgar.
His style has the ease of the best prose of the age, and the natural rhythm of the spoken word, but it also has the strength and vividness which only the bolder minds like Dryden could achieve in an age that set such store on polish and grace. More often, however, he darts a poisoned arrow in the form of an aphorism or an epigram, of an antithesis or a pun.
His quibbles are seldom mere jeux de mots for they usually occur when he is stating pungent truths, and they are often half submerged, as they are in Pope. Thus in the sermon on the pleasantness of religion, in which he opposes the pleasures of the mind to those of the body, and true self-denial to mere bodily exercises, he concludes:. The Truth is, if Mens Religion lies no deeper than their skin, it is possible that they may scourge themselves into very great Improvements Sometimes he quibbles to contrast the ways of the world with the ways of God, and the grim joke is then given its full force, as in the sermon on Shamelessness in Sin , in which he refers to the habit of paying visits to worthless people:.
But now all possible Courtship and Attendance is thought too little to be used towards People infamous and odious, and fit to be visited by none but by God himself , who visits after a very different Manner from the Courtiers of the World For instance, comparing prelapsarian man to the best philosophers, he says:. We were not born crooked; we learnt these Windings and Turnings of the Serpent When explaining that the service of Christ demands self-denial and may be attended with persecution, he reminds his hearers that.
Ignorance indeed, so far as it may be resolved into natural Inability, is, as to Men, at least, inculpable; and consequently, not the Object of Scorn, but Pity; But in a Governour, it cannot be without the Conjunction of the highest Impudence: For who bid such an one aspire to teach, and to govern? A Blind Man sitting in the Chimney Corner is pardonable enough, but sitting at the Helm, he is intolerable.
If men will be ignorant and illiterate, let them be so in private, and to themselves, and not set their Defects in an high Place, to make them visible and conspicuous. If Owls will not be hooted at, let them keep close within the Tree, and not perch upon the upper Boughs He who would recount every Part of Christ that suffered must read a Lecture of Anatomy Thus he begins a sermon on the Resurrection with the favourite conceit of the Jacobean divines:. The allegory is usually compressed, but he sometimes develops it as when he relates the story of Jeroboam, who is viewed as the type of the late usurper, or when he applies the text of Matt.
The same turn of mind is found in such passages as this, from Interest Deposed :. But since it has been still preached up, but acted down; and dealt with, as the Eagle in the Fable did with the Oister, carrying it up on high, that by letting it fall he might dash it in Pieces: I say, since Christ must reign, but his Truths be made to serve; I suppose it is but Reason to distinguish between Profession and Pretence, and to conclude that Men s present crying, Hail King , and Bending the Knee to Christ, are only in order to his future Crucifixion In his instructions to preachers South reminded them that God spoke to the capacity of men and that Christ often uttered His truths in parables because the senses are the channels through which to reach the understanding.
Christ demands the Homage of your understanding: He will have your Reason bend to him, you must put your Heads under his Feet With him, the concrete is, as often as not, a homely simile, which some may feel debases the truth propounded but which usually gives it new vigour. In the consecration sermon he argues that the spiritual order must be fortified with some power that is temporal, for. If the Bishop has no other defensatives but Excommunication, no other Power but that of the Keys, he may, for any notable Effect that he is like to do upon the Factious and Contumacious, surrender up his Pastoral Staff, shut up his Church, and put those Keys under the Door His mind, like a Mushroom, has shot up in a Night ;.
They came so fast upon the Christians, that all the intermission they had from one Persecution, was but a kind of pause or breathing time a short Parenthesis of ease to enable them for another Images therefore function as arguments, not as decoration; they persuade through their clearness and vividness as much as do the conceptual statements.
South often refers to the use of figurative language in Scripture as a means to utter truths in a form suitable to the apprehension of men. Like his fellow-Anglicans, he insisted that the true meaning of Scripture is the literal, but he did not altogether ignore the typological. True, he mostly touched upon this in order to show that the Jewish religion presented types and shadows of truths which were to be revealed later in their full light ; all the same, his own use of imagery suggests that he was closer to the men that saw correspondences everywhere than to the natural philosophers of his own age.
He was too strict a thinker ever to let his mind dwell on fancied analogies, and he had been too often shocked by the extravagant interpretations of the Saints to hunt for types and shadows in the remotest corners; but the world around him was full of concrete particulars imaging the truths he wished to expound to his hearers. In his use of language no less than in his thought South is therefore closer to writers of an earlier generation; and yet he sounds far more modern than Barrow, who shared all the interests of the new age.
By temper he was a conservative, yet a conservative that could infuse new vigour in the old traditions or modes of thought, and through his nimble wit give life and force to the language by wielding the old and the new, the abstract and the concrete, the conceptual and the figurative.
Topical references abound in his sermons, to men, events, or doctrines of the day or of the recent past, and many of his examples or even incidental comparisons are drawn from the scene around him This may account for the inability of later sermon readers to get the full gist of what he was saying, and for such misunderstandings as that exemplified in the preface to the Beauties of South ; but it certainly enhances the vividness of his discourses and gives the modern reader a keen sense of their relevancy to the problems confronting men after the Restoration.
Like the similes these allusions keep the argument firmly anchored in the concrete reality, and through their immediacy add force and substance to the principles South defines. True wit, he said, is a severe and manly thing, and in this kind of wit he was himself supreme. His thought is etched out with precision and vigour. Just as his paragraphs hinge on for, therefore, since, though , and the like, so he compresses his sentences to the essentials, for instance:. Others held a fortuitous Concourse of Atoms; but all seem jointly to explode a Creation; still beating upon this Ground, that the producing Something out of Nothing is impossible and incomprehensible: Incomprehensible indeed I grant, but not therefore impossible ;.
Reputation is Power, and consequently to despise is to weaken Every vice interprets a Connivance an Approbation And though I am commanded when my enemy thirsts to give him Drink , yet it is not when he thirsts for my Blood Yes, no doubt, if a man were to be pulled up to Heaven by the Ears ; or the Gospel would but reverse its Rule, and declare, That not the Doers of the Word, but the Hearers only should be justified Grace abhors a Vacuum in Time, as much as Nature does in Place It may be noted that several of these examples either begin or conclude a paragraph, thus serving as syntheses, much as do the vivid comparisons, clinching the argument or defining a truth to be demonstrated.
On the contrary, the sentences are linked closely, and form a train of argument moving swiftly to the point he wants to make. The parts are usually short, or fairly short, independent clauses, so that the stages in the process can be grasped clearly, and the argument followed easily thanks to the strict logic. The following paragraph may serve to illustrate this method and style, yet it is not particularly striking in its context:. Reputation is Power, and consequently to despise is to weaken.
For where there is Contempt, there can be no Awe; and where there is no Awe, there will be no Subjection; and if there is no Subjection, it is impossible, without the Help of the former Distinction of a Politick Capacity, to imagine how a Prince can be a Governour. He that makes his Prince despised and undervalued, blows a Trumpet against him in Mens Breasts, beats him out of his Subjects Hearts, and fights him out of their Affections; and after this, he may easily strip him of his other Garrisons, having already dispossessed him of his strongest, by dismantling him of his Honour, and seizing his Reputation Because he does this all along, his homely similes hardly ever seem out of place even though they may sometimes offend the nicer critics.
His style may owe something to the Senecans, but the main influence is certainly that of the Bible, both in the pattern of his sentences and in the inclusiveness of his idiom. When he wishes to diminish, as the old rhetoricians said, and he often does so wish, he uses diminishing figures. He does not feel bound to the level tone of the more moderate or more lukewarm preachers, but lashes out when occasion offers, and he often has good precedent for such violence of language, as when he says:.
Nor did he believe that gentle admonitions could reclaim the wicked or discourage the enemies of order in Church and State. He was too much the aristocrat not to speak out boldly and state what he considered as vital truths with all the means at his disposal. He was a powerful preacher just because through the vigour of his intellect and the liveliness of his imagination he could infuse new life into the old truths and make them shine with all the brightness of his sprightly wit.
Such gems abound in his sermons, for instance:. The Doctrine that teaches Alms, and the Persons that need them, are by such equally sent packing No man is esteemed any ways considerable for Policy, who wears Religion otherwise than as a Cloak; that is, as such a Garment as may both cover and keep him warm , and yet hang loose upon him too For the sensual Epicure, he also will find Such are their [i. Conscience, if truly tender, never complains without a Cause, though I confess, there is a new fashioned sort of Tenderness of Conscience , which always does so.
But that is like the Tenderness of a Bog or Quagmire, and it is very dangerous coming near it, for fear of being swallowed up by it. For when Conscience has once acquired this artificial Tenderness , it will strangely enlarge, or contract its Swallow as it pleases; so that sometimes a Camel shall slide down with Ease, where at other times, even a Gnat may chance to stick by the way. It is, indeed, such a kind of Tenderness , as makes the Person, who has it, generally very tender of obeying the Laws , but never of breaking them.
And therefore, since it is commonly at such variance with the Law. I think the Law is the fittest Thing to deal with it But the severe Notions of Christianity turned all this upside down, filling all with Surprize and Amazement; they came upon the World, like Light darting full upon the Face of a Man asleep, who had a Mind to sleep on, and not to be disturbed Right thinking was the aim of all his teaching, but it was the kind of thinking that involves both the intellect and the imagination.
For South, as for Pope, wit as imagination and judgement were to act as close partners in setting forth the truths of religion. In this, as in so much else, he was resisting the tide that was ultimately to effect the severance of judgement from fancy; he was, in fact, true to an earlier conception of reason. His main purpose in teaching was to enlighten the understanding and to correct errors of judgement rather than to fortify the will. Among the truths he was out to enforce were the fundamental articles of belief, particularly those that were impugned in his day, such as the Trinity and the mysteriousness of Christianity; like his contemporaries, he also demonstrated the absurdity of unbelief.
The main evil against which he fought in sermon after sermon, however, was the corruption of doctrine and discipline deriving from what he believed to be a false conception of faith and of worship. With the utmost violence he denounced new schemes of Church government, extempore prayers or preaching by the Spirit.
He condemned all looseness in thinking as in worshipping, and disorder in the State as in the Church. Believing as he did that the civil power is the necessary prop of the spiritual power, he attacked the enemies of both with equal fire, and in many of his sermons he preached politics as well as religion.
Those on Extempore Prayers , or The Scribe Instructed as well as the doctrinal sermons, on the Pentecost or the Trinity or against unbelief, define with particular cogency the beliefs and temper of this particular divine, which determined the stand he took on political and ecclesiastical issues. As a consequence an editor is hard put to it to select from such an embarras de richesses. Sermons which appealed to earlier anthologists, such as that on So God Created Man in his own Image , or particularly delighted his contemporaries, such as that on The Lot is cast into the Lap , do not appear in the present selection though they too are likely to interest the modern reader.
Tonson issued a new folio edition, for which Thomas Birch wrote a life of the author. Sometime after he was elected Fellow of the College, and he took his M. At the time he was himself a Puritan, but according to one of his pupils he heard many sermons and, being eclectic, refused to bind himself to opinions This may have contributed to sway his sympathies, though he was still to remain among the Puritans for some time. He was ordained, probably in , by Thomas Sydserf, the one Scottish bishop still living , but was deprived of his fellowship at Clare Hall when Peter Gunning was readmitted after the Restoration From to he was curate at Cheshunt, Hertfortshire, and in December he was appointed Tuesday lecturer at St.
Lawrence Jewry. He had sat with the Presbyterians at the Savoy Conference, but when the Act of Uniformity was passed he conformed to the discipline of the Church of England. Teresa and on St. John of the Cross, remained in manuscript; and the three volumes of Memorias historiales, in the National Library of Spain, at Madrid, are a major source for critical work on the Reformers of Carmel. As many of the archives which the two Fathers used are no longer in existence, their work has preserved much that would otherwise have been irretrievably lost, including part of the magnificent collection which we have of Teresian letters.
In their work upon the texts, they detected more than seven hundred errors in the Life of and twelve hundred in Moreto's edition of the Foundations. It is a pity that the Order found the task of publishing a new edition too much for it and was content to reprint, in , an edition of , adding to it a volume containing eighty-two previously unpublished letters. In appeared another edition, which included a further volume of letters and eighty-seven fragments, and was the last to be published by the Order for a hundred and twenty years. The strides made in Spain, during the last half century, by Teresian criticism, and indeed by Spanish criticism in general, make it possible for Spaniards to look back from a great distance at the work of La Fuente, both here and in his later six volume edition of , and find in it faults of many kinds: innumerable textual errors, frequent inaccuracies of fact, exaggerations in judgment and an undue dogmatism of tone.
This Aragonese editor, though learned and devout in a high degree, had the temperamental bluntness and stubbornness traditionally associated with Aragon, and from this his work frequently suffered. Teresa's birth, appeared the first volume of the definitive Carmelite edition [which we owe to the indefatigable P. Silverio de Santa Teresa. The notes to the text, which are not the strongest point of the edition, are brief and in the main factual, though occasionally they sin through the discursiveness which P.
Silverio seldom for long avoids. Silverio's appendices contain numerous hitherto unpublished documents, many of them of capital importance for an intimate knowledge of St. Teresa's life. Teresa has enjoyed in her own country since the time of her death. In our own country it was her Life which at first chiefly attracted translators: the Antwerp translations of the Jesuit William Malone appeared as early as ; twelve years later, Sir Tobias Mathew's version, known as The Flaming Hart, was published in London, a second edition appearing at Antwerp in ; while the Life and Foundations were published by Abraham Woodhead in , and a third volume, containing nearly all the remaining works, came out in After this nearly two centuries elapsed before the Saint began to be widely read once more, but since Dalton, with his new translation of the Life , led the revival, interest in her has never ceased.
Dalton's Way of perfection and Interior Castle , Foundations and small selection of Letters were followed by the Life and Foundations in the translation of David Lewis: the Life, still leading the other works in popularity, went into four editions. The mantle of Lewis fell upon the shoulders of a Benedictine nun of Stanbrook Abbey, and the editions of the Benedictines of Stanbrook, already referred to, and notably their versions of the Way of perfection and the Interior Castle and their four-volume edition of the Letters , have perhaps done more than any others to give St.
Teresa a place in our spiritual life comparable to that which she holds in Spain. Finally we must not forget the valuable contributions made to our knowledge of the Saint and her times by the learned Carmelite, Father Zimmerman, whose revisions of, and introductions to, the Lewis and Stanbrook translations have so much enhanced their value. England, it will be seen, is not now behindhand in her appreciation of a Saint on whom one of her seventeenth-century poets wrote what is perhaps the finest panegyric in verse upon her in existence.
O thou undanted daughter of desires! By all thy dowr of Lights and Fires; By all the eagle in thee, all the dove; By all thy lives and deaths of love; By thy larg draughts of intellectuall day, And by thy thirsts of love more large then they; By all thy brim-fill'd Bowles of feirce desire; By thy last Morning's draught of liquid fire; By the full kingdome of that finall kisse That seiz'd thy parting Soul, and sealed thee his; By all the heavn's thou hast in him Fair sister of the Seraphim!
Let me so read thy life, that I Unto all life of mine may dy. The translator, who, in the main, has followed P. Silverio in the order in which he has arranged St. Teresa's works, begs leave to append a note, adapted from P. Silverio, upon the principles underlying this arrangement. After the Life and the Relations comes the Way of Perfection c. Since the Life contained so much intimate detail it was thought unsuitable for publication until after its author's death, and the Way of perfection was written, in one sense, to supply its place.
Next comes the Interior Castle , more mature and more intensely mystical than its two predecessors. These three works, taken together, may be thought of as a complete exposition of the ascetic and mystical system of St. As closely connected with the Interior Castle in its nature and spirit as are the Relations with the Life are the Conceptions of the Love of God, and the Exclamations of the Soul to God, the two loveliest of St.
Teresa's opuscules, both of them from beginning to end aglow with mystical love. Following these, as standing outside their sphere and despite some fine and noble passages on a lower plane, comes the Foundations ff. Teresa is least noteworthy. Describes how the Lord began to awaken her soul in childhood to a love of virtue and what a help it is in this respect to have good parents.
If I had not been so wicked it would have been a help to me that I had parents who were virtuous and feared God, and also that the Lord granted me His favour to make me good.
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My father was fond of reading good books and had some in Spanish so that his children might read them too. These books, together with the care which my mother took to make us say our prayers and to lead us to be devoted to Our Lady and to certain saints, began to awaken good desires in me when I was, I suppose, about six or seven years old. It was a help to me that I never saw my parents inclined to anything but virtue.
They themselves had many virtues. On one occasion, when he had a slave of a brother of his in the house, he was as good to her as to his own children. He used to say that it caused him intolerable distress that she was not free. He was strictly truthful: nobody ever heard him swear or speak evil. He was a man of the most rigid chastity. My mother, too, was a very virtuous woman, who endured a life of great infirmity: she was also particularly chaste.
Though extremely beautiful, she was never known to give any reason for supposing that she made the slightest account of her beauty; and, though she died at thirty-three, her dress was already that of a person advanced in years. She was a very tranquil woman, of great intelligence. Throughout her life she endured great trials and her death was most Christian. We were three sisters and nine brothers: all of them, by the goodness of God, resembled their parents in virtue, except myself, though I was my father's favourite. And, before I began to offend God, I think there was some reason for this, for it grieves me whenever I remember what good inclinations the Lord had given me and how little I profited by them.
My brothers and sisters never hindered me from serving God in any way. I had one brother almost of my own age. We used to read the lives of saints together; and, when I read of the martyrdoms suffered by saintly women for God's sake, I used to think they had purchased the fruition of God very cheaply; and I had a keen desire to die as they had done, not out of any love for God of which I was conscious, but in order to attain as quickly as possible to the fruition of the great blessings which, as I read, were laid up in Heaven.
I used to discuss with this brother of mine how we could become martyrs. We agreed to go off to the country of the Moors, begging our bread for the love of God, so that they might behead us there; and, even at so tender an age, I believe the Lord had given us sufficient courage for this, if we could have found a way to do it; but our greatest hindrance seemed to be that we had a father and a mother. When I saw that it was impossible for me to go to any place where they would put me to death for God's sake, we decided to become hermits, and we used to build hermitages, as well as we could, in an orchard which we had at home.
We would make heaps of small stones, but they at once fell down again, so we found no way of accomplishing our desires. But even now it gives me a feeling of devotion to remember how early God granted me what I lost by my own fault. I gave alms as I could, which was but little. I tried to be alone when I said my prayers, and there were many such, in particular the rosary, to which my mother had a great devotion, and this made us devoted to them too. Whenever I played with other little girls, I used to love building convents and pretending that we were nuns; and I think I wanted to be a nun, though not so much as the other things I have described.
I remember that, when my mother died, I was twelve years of age or a little less. Though I did this in my simplicity, I believe it was of some avail to me; for whenever I have commended myself to this Sovereign Virgin I have been conscious of her aid; and eventually she has brought me back to herself. It grieves me now when I observe and reflect how I did not keep sincerely to the good desires which I had begun. It grieves me, Lord, even to say this, since I know that the fault has been mine alone, for I believe there is nothing more Thou couldst have done, even from this early age, to make me wholly Thine.
Nor, if I should feel inclined to complain of my parents, could I do so, for I saw nothing in them but every kind of good and anxiety for my welfare.
But as I ceased to be a child and began to become aware of the natural graces which the Lord had given me, and which were said to be many, instead of giving Him thanks for them, as I should, I started to make use of them to offend Him. This I shall now explain. Describes how these virtues were gradually lost and how important it is in childhood to associate with people of virtue.
What I shall now describe was, I think something which began to do me great harm. I sometimes reflect how wrong it is of parents not to contrive that their children shall always, and in every way, see things which are good. My mother, as I have said, was very good herself, but, when I came to the age of reason, I copied her goodness very little, in fact hardly at all, and evil things did me a great deal of harm. She was fond of books of chivalry; and this pastime had not the ill effects on her that is had on me, because she never allowed them to interfere with her work.
But we were always trying to make time to read them; and she permitted this, perhaps in order to stop herself from thinking of the great trials she suffered, and to keep her children occupied so that in other respects they should not go astray. This annoyed my father so much that we had to be careful lest he should see us reading these books. For myself, I began to make a habit of it, and this little fault which I saw in my mother began to cool my good desires and lead me to other kinds of wrongdoing.
I thought there was nothing wrong in my wasting many hours, by day and by night, in this useless occupation, even though I had to hide it from my father. So excessively was I absorbed in it that I believe, unless I had a new book, I was never happy. There was nothing wrong with my intentions, for I should never have wanted anyone to offend God because of me.
This great and excessive fastidiousness about personal appearance, together with other practices which I thought were in no way sinful, lasted for many years: I see now how wrong they must have been. I had some cousins, who were the only people allowed to enter my father's house: he was very careful about this and I wish to God that he had been careful about my cousins too.
For I now see the danger of intercourse, at an age when the virtues should be beginning to grow, with persons who, though ignorant of worldly vanity, arouse a desire for the world in others. These cousins were almost exactly of my own age or a little older than I. We always went about together; they were very fond of me; and I would keep our conversation on things that amused them and listen to the stories they told about their childish escapades and crazes, which were anything but edifying.
What was worse, my soul began to incline to the thing that was the cause of all its trouble. If I had to advise parents, I should tell them to take great care about the people with whom their children associate at such an age. Much harm may result from bad company and we are inclined by nature to follow what is worse rather than what is better. This was the case with me: I had a sister much older than myself, from whom, though she was very good and chaste, I learned nothing, whereas from a relative whom we often had in the house I learned every kind of evil.
This person was so frivolous in her conversation that my mother had tried very hard to prevent her from coming to the house, realizing what harm she might do me, but there were so many reasons for her coming that she was powerless. I became very fond of meeting this woman.
I talked and gossiped with her frequently; she joined me in all my favourite pastimes; and she also introduced me to other pastimes and talked to me about all her conversations and vanities. Until I knew her this was when I was about fourteen or perhaps more: by knowing her I mean becoming friendly with her and receiving her confidences I do not think I had ever forsaken God by committing any mortal sin, or lost my fear of God, though I was much more concerned about my honour. So I might have had the strength not to sin against the honour of God, as my natural inclination led me not to go astray in anything which I thought concerned worldly honour, and I did not realize that I was forfeiting my honour in many other ways.
I went to great extremes in my vain anxiety about this, though I took not the slightest trouble about what I must do to live a truly honourable life. All that I was seriously concerned about was that I should not be lost altogether. My father and sister were very sorry about this friendship of mine and often reproved me for it. But, as they could not prevent my friend from coming to the house, their efforts were of no avail, for when it came to doing anything wrong I was very clever. I am sometimes astonished at the harm which can be caused by bad company; if I had not experienced it I could not believe it.
This is especially so when one is young, for it is then that the evil done is greatest. I wish parents would be warned by me and consider this very carefully. The result of my intercourse with this woman was to change me so much that I lost nearly all my soul's natural inclination to virtue, and was greatly influenced by her, and by another person who indulged in the same kinds of pastime. From this I have learned what great advantage comes from good companionship; and I am sure that if at that age I had been friendly with good people I should have remained sound in virtue.
For, if at that time I had had anyone to teach me to fear God, my soul would have grown strong enough not to fall. Later, when the fear of God had entirely left me, I retained only this concern about my honour, which was a torture to me in everything that I did.
When I thought that nobody would ever know, I was rash enough to do many things which were an offence both to my honour and to God. At first, I believe, these things did me harm. The fault, I think, was not my friend's but my own. For subsequently my own wickedness sufficed to lead me into sin, together with the servants we had, whom I found quite ready to encourage me in all kinds of wrongdoing. Perhaps, if any of them had given me good advice, I might have profited by it; but they were as much blinded by their own interests as I was by desire.
And yet I never felt the inclination to do much that was wrong, for I had a natural detestation of everything immodest and preferred passing the time in good company. But, if an occasion of sin presented itself, the danger would be at hand and I should be exposing my father and brothers to it. From all this God delivered me, in such a way that, even against my own will, He seems to have contrived that I should not be lost, though this was not to come about so secretly as to prevent me from gravely damaging my reputation and arousing suspicions in my father.
I could hardly have been following these vanities for three months when I was taken to a convent in the place where I lived, in which children like myself, though less depraved in their habits than I, were being educated. The reason for this was so carefully concealed that only one or two of my relatives and myself were aware of it. They had waited for an occasion to arise naturally; and now, as my sister had married, and I had no mother, I should have been alone in the house if I had not gone there, which would not have been fitting.
So excessive was my father's love for me, and so complete was the deception which I practised on him, that he could never believe all the ill of me that I deserved and thus I never fell into disgrace with him. It had not been going on for long; and, although they had some idea of what I had been doing, nothing could have been said about it with any certainty.
As I had such concern for my good name, I had made the greatest efforts to keep it all secret, and I had not considered that it could not be kept secret from Him Who sees all things. O my God, what harm is done in the world by forgetfulness of this and by the belief that anything can be kept secret which is done against Thee! I am sure that much wrongdoing would be avoided if we realized that our business is to be on our guard, not against men, but against displeasing Thee. For the first week I suffered a great deal, though not so much from being in a convent as from the suspicion that everyone knew about my vanity.
For I had already become tired of the life I had been leading; and even when I offended God I never ceased to be sorely afraid of Him and I tried to make my confessions as soon as possible after falling into sin. At first I was very restless; but within a week, perhaps even earlier, I was much happier than I had been in my father's house. All the nuns were pleased with me; for the Lord had given me grace, wherever I was, to please people, and so I became a great favourite.
Yet in spite of this the devil did not cease tempting me and my friends outside tried to unsettle me by sending me messages. As that was not allowed, it soon came to an end, and my soul then began to return to the good habits of my earlier childhood and I realized what a great favour God does to those whom He places in the company of good people.
It seems as if His Majesty was trying and trying again to find a way of bringing me back to Himself. Blessed be Thou, Lord, Who for so long hast suffered me! If my faults had not been so numerous, there is one thing which I think might have served as an excuse for them: that my intimacy with this person was of such a kind that I thought it might end satisfactorily on her marriage; and both my confessor and other persons told me that in many respects I was not offending God.
There was a nun who slept with those of us who were seculars and it was through her that the Lord seems to have been pleased to begin to give me light, as I shall now explain. Describes how good companionship helped to awaken desires in her and the way in which the Lord began to give her light concerning the delusion under which she had been suffering. As I began to enjoy the good and holy conversation of this nun, I grew to delight in listening to her, for she spoke well about God and was very discreet and holy.
There was never a time, I think, when I did not delight in listening to her words. She began to tell me how she had come to be a nun through merely reading those words in the Gospel: Many are called but few chosen. This good companionship began to eradicate the habits which bad companionship had formed in me, to bring back my thoughts to desires for eternal things, and to remove some of the great dislike which I had for being a nun, and which had become deeply engrained in me.
If I saw anyone weeping as she prayed, or giving evidence of any other virtues, I now greatly envied her; for my heart was so hard in this respect that, even if I read the entire narrative of the Passion, I could not shed a tear; and this distressed me. I remained in this convent for a year and a half, and was much the better for it. I began to say a great many vocal prayers and to get all the nuns to commend me to God and pray that He would bring me to the state in which I was to serve Him.
But I was still anxious not to be a nun, for God had not as yet been pleased to give me this desire, although I was also afraid of marriage. There were a few of the younger ones who encouraged me in this feeling; if all the nuns had been of one opinion, it would have been much better for me. I also had a close friend in another convent, and this gave me the idea that, if I was to be a nun, I would go only to the house where she was. I thought more about pleasures of sense and vanity than of my soul's profit.
These good thoughts about being a nun came to me from time to time but they soon left me and I could not persuade myself to become one. At this time, though I was not careless about my own improvement, the Lord became more desirous of preparing me for the state of life which was best for me. He sent me a serious illness, which forced me to return to my father's house. When I got better, they took me to see my sister, who was living in a village.
This, too, I owe chiefly to the Lord, for I have always been well treated everywhere, and yet the only service I have rendered Him is to be what I am. On the road leading to my sister's lived one of my father's brothers, a widower, who was a very shrewd man and full of virtues. Him, too, the Lord was preparing for Himself: in his old age he gave up all that he had and became a friar, and he ended his life in such a way that I believe he is now rejoicing in God.
He wanted me to stay with him for some days. It was his practice to read good books in Spanish and his conversation was ordinarily about God and the vanity of the world. He made me read to him; and, although I did not much care for his books, I acted as though I did; for in the matter of pleasing others, even when I disliked doing it, I have been so excessively complacent, that in others it would have been a virtue, though in me it was a great fault because I was often very indiscreet. O God, in how many ways did His Majesty gradually prepare me for the state in which He was to be pleased to use me!
In how many ways, against my own will, did He constrain me to exercise restraint upon myself! Though I stayed here for only a few days, such was the impression made on my heart by the words of God, both as read and as heard, and the excellence of my uncle's company, that I began to understand the truth, which I had learned as a child, that all things are nothing, and that the world is vanity and will soon pass away. I began to fear that, if I had died of my illness, I should have gone to hell; and though, even then, I could not incline my will to being a nun, I saw that this was the best and safest state, and so, little by little, I determined to force myself to embrace it.
This conflict lasted for three months. I used to try to convince myself by using the following argument. The trials and distresses of being a nun could not be greater than those of purgatory and I had fully deserved to be in hell. It would not be a great matter to spend my life as though I were in purgatory if afterwards I were to go straight to Heaven, which was what I desired. This decision, then, to enter the religious life seems to have been inspired by servile fear more than by love. The devil suggested to me that I could not endure the trials of the religious life as I had been so delicately brought up.
This suggestion I met by telling him about the trials suffered by Christ and saying that it would not be too much for me to suffer a few for His sake. I must have thought that He would help me to bear them but that I cannot remember. I had many temptations in those days. I had now begun to suffer from serious fainting fits, together with fever; my health has always been poor. The fact that I had now become fond of good books gave me new life. I would read the epistles of Saint Jerome; and these inspired me with such courage that I determined to tell my father of my decision, which was going almost as far as taking the habit; for my word of honour meant so much to me that I doubt if any reason would have sufficed to turn me back from a thing when I had once said I would do it.
He was so fond of me that I was never able to get his consent, nor did the requests of persons whom I asked to speak with him about it succeed in doing so. The most I could obtain from him was permission to do as I liked after his death. As I distrusted myself and thought I might turn back out of weakness, this course seemed an unsuitable one. So I achieved my aim in another way, as I shall now explain. Describes how the Lord helped her to force herself to take the habit and tells of the numerous infirmities which His Majesty began to send her. During this time, when I was considering these resolutions, I had persuaded one of my brothers, by talking to him about the vanity of the world, to become a friar, and we agreed to set out together, very early one morning, for the convent where that friend of mine lived of whom I was so fond.
In making my final decision, I had already resolved that I would go to any other convent in which I thought I could serve God better or which my father might wish me to enter, for by now I was concerned chiefly with the good of my soul and cared nothing for my comfort. It seemed to me as if every bone in my body were being wrenched asunder; for, as I had no love of God to subdue my love for my father and kinsfolk, everything was such a strain to me that, if the Lord had not helped me, no reflections of my own would have sufficed to keep me true to my purpose. But the Lord gave me courage to fight against myself and so I carried out my intention.
When I took the habit, the Lord at once showed me how great are His favours to those who use force with themselves in His service. No one realized that I had gone through all this; they all thought I had acted out of sheer desire. At the time my entrance into this new life gave me a joy so great that it has never failed me even to this day, and God converted the aridity of my soul into the deepest tenderness. Everything connected with the religious life caused me delight; and it is a fact that sometimes, when I was spending time in sweeping floors which I had previously spent on my own indulgence and adornment, and realized that I was now free from all those things, there came to me a new joy, which amazed me, for I could not understand whence it arose.
Whenever I recall this, there is nothing, however hard, which I would hesitate to undertake if it were proposed to me. For I know now, by experience of many kinds, that if I strengthen my purpose by resolving to do a thing for God's sake alone, it is His will that, from the very beginning, my soul shall be afraid, so that my merit may be the greater; and if I achieve my resolve, the greater my fear has been, the greater will be my reward, and the greater, too, will be my retrospective pleasure. Even in this life His Majesty rewards such an act in ways that can be understood only by one who has enjoyed them.
This I know by experience, as I have said, in many very serious matters; and so, if I were a person who had to advise others, I would never recommend anyone, when a good inspiration comes to him again and again, to hesitate to put it into practice because of fear; for, if one lives a life of detachment for God's sake alone, there is no reason to be afraid that things will turn out amiss, since He is all-powerful. May He be blessed for ever. O Supreme Good! O my Rest! The favours which Thou hadst given me until now should have sufficed me, since by Thy compassion and greatness I had been brought, along so many devious ways, to a state so secure and to a house in which there were so many servants of God from whom I might take example and thus learn to grow in Thy service.
When I remember the way I made my profession and the great determination and satisfaction with which I made it and the betrothal that I contracted with Thee, I do not know how to proceed any farther with my story. I cannot speak of this without tears, and they ought to be tears of blood, and my heart ought to break, and even that would be showing no great sorrow for the offenses which I afterwards committed against Thee.
It seems to me now that I was right not to wish for so great an honour, since I was to make such bad use of it. But Thou, my Lord, wert prepared to be offended by me for almost twenty years, during which time I made ill use of Thy favour, so that in the end I might become better. It would seem, my God, as if I had promised to break all the promises I had made Thee, although at the time that was not my intention. When I look back on these actions of mine, I do not know what my intention could have been.
All this, my Spouse, reveals still more clearly the difference between Thy nature and mine. Certainly distress for my great sins is often tempered by the joy which comes to me at being the means of making known the multitude of Thy mercies. In whom, Lord, can they shine forth as in me, who with my evil deeds have thus obscured the great favours which Thou hadst begun to show me? Alas, my Creator! If I would make an excuse, I have none, and none is to blame but I. For, had I repaid Thee any part of the love which Thou hadst begun to show me, I could have bestowed it on none but Thyself; and had I but done this, everything would have been set right.
But as I have not deserved this, nor had such good fortune, may Thy mercy, Lord, be availing for me. The change in my life, and in my diet, affected my health; and, though my happiness was great, it was not sufficient to cure me. My fainting fits began to increase in number and I suffered so much from heart trouble that everyone who saw me was alarmed.
I also had many other ailments. I spent my first year, therefore, in a very poor state of health, though I do not think I offended God very much during that time. As our own doctors could suggest none, he arranged for me to be taken to a place where they had a great reputation for curing other kinds of illness and said they could also cure mine This friend whom I have spoken of as being in the house, and who was one of the seniors among the sisters, went with me. In the house where I was a nun, we did not have to make a vow of enclosure.
I was there for nearly a year, and during three months of that time I suffered the greatest tortures from the drastic remedies which they applied to me. I do not know how I managed to endure them; and in fact, though I did endure them, my constitution was unable to stand them, as I shall explain. My treatment was to commence at the beginning of the summer and I had left the convent when the winter began. All the intervening time I spent in the house of the sister whom I referred to above as living in a village, waiting for the month of April, which was near at hand, so that I should not have to go and come back again.
On the way there, I stopped at the house of this uncle of mine, which, as I have said, was on the road, and he gave me a book called Third Alphabet, which treats of the Prayer of Recollection. As by now the Lord had granted me the gift of tears, and I liked reading, I began to spend periods in solitude, to go frequently to confession and to start upon the way of prayer with this book for my guide. For I found no other guide no confessor, I mean who understood me, though I sought one for fully twenty years subsequently to the time I am speaking of.
This did me great harm, as I had frequent relapses, and might have been completely lost; a guide would at least have helped me to escape when I found myself running the risk of offending God. In these early days His Majesty began to grant me so many favours that at the end of this entire period of solitude, which lasted for almost nine months, although I was not so free from offending God as the book said one should be, I passed over that, for such great care seemed to me almost impossible.
But about venial sins I troubled very little and it was this which brought about my fall. Still, the Lord began to be so gracious to me on this way of prayer that He granted me the favour of leading me to the Prayer of Quiet, and occasionally even to Union, though I did not understand what either of these was, or how highly they were to be valued. Had I understood this I think it would have been a great blessing.
It is true that my experience of Union lasted only a short time; I am not sure that it can have been for as long as an Ave Maria; but the results of it were so considerable, and lasted for so long that, although at this time I was not twenty years old, I seemed to have trampled the world beneath my feet, and I remember that I used to pity those who still clung to it, even in things that were lawful. I used to try to think of Jesus Christ, our Good and our Lord, as present within me, and it was in this way that I prayed.
If I thought about any incident in His life, I would imagine it inwardly, though I liked principally to read good books, and this constituted the whole of my recreation. For God had not given me talents for reasoning with the understanding or for making good use of the imagination: my imagination is so poor that, even when I thought about the Lord's Humanity, or tried to imagine it to myself, as I was in the habit of doing, I never succeeded.
And although, if they persevere, people may attain more quickly to contemplation by following this method of not labouring with the understanding, it is a very troublesome and painful process. For if the will has nothing to employ it and love has no present object with which to busy itself, the soul finds itself without either support or occupation, its solitude and aridity cause it great distress and its thoughts involve it in the severest conflict. People in this condition need greater purity of conscience than those who can labour with the understanding. For anyone meditating on the nature of the world, on his duties to God, on God's great sufferings and on what he himself is giving to Him Who loves him, will find in his meditations instructions for defending himself against his thoughts and against perils and occasions of sin.
Anyone unable to make use of this method is in much greater danger and should occupy himself frequently in reading, since he cannot find instruction in any other way. And inability to do this is so very painful that, if the master who is directing him forbids him to read and thus find help for recollection, reading is none the less necessary for him, however little it may be, as a substitute for the mental prayer which he is unable to practise.
I mean that if he is compelled to spend a great deal of time in prayer without this aid it will be impossible for him to persist in it for long, and if he does so it will endanger his health, since it is a very painful process. I believe now that it was through the Lord's good providence that I found no one to teach me; for, had I done so, it would have been impossible, I think, for me to persevere during the eighteen years for which I had to bear this trial and these great aridities, due, as I say, to my being unable to meditate.
During all these years, except after communicating, I never dared begin to pray without a book; my soul was as much afraid to engage in prayer without one as if it were having to go and fight against a host of enemies. With this help, which was a companionship to me and a shield with which I could parry the blows of my many thoughts, I felt comforted. For it was not usual with me to suffer from aridity: this only came when I had no book, whereupon my soul would at once become disturbed and my thoughts would begin to wander. As soon as I started to read they began to collect themselves and the book acted like a bait to my soul.
Often the mere fact that I had it by me was sufficient. Sometimes I read a little, sometimes a great deal, according to the favour which the Lord showed me. It seemed to me, in these early stages of which I am speaking, that, provided I had books and could be alone, there was no risk of my being deprived of that great blessing; and I believe that, by the help of God, this would have been the case if at the beginning I had had a master or some other person to advise me how to flee from occasions of sin, and, if I fell before them, to get me quickly free from them.
If at that time the devil had attacked me openly, I believe I should never in any way have begun to sin grievously again. But he was so subtle, and I was so weak, that all my resolutions were of little profit to me, though, in the days when I served God, they became very profitable indeed, in that they enabled me to bear the terrible infirmities which came to me with the great patience given me by His Majesty. I have often reflected with amazement upon God's great goodness and my soul has delighted in the thought of His great magnificence and mercy. May He be blessed for all this, for it has become clear to me that, even in this life, He has not failed to reward me for any of my good desires.
However wretched and imperfect my good works have been, this Lord of mine has been improving them, perfecting them and making them of greater worth, and yet hiding my evil deeds and my sins as soon as they have been committed. He has even allowed the eyes of those who have seen them to be blind to them and He blots them from their memory. He gilds my faults and makes some virtue of mine to shine forth in splendour; yet it was He Himself Who gave it me and almost forced me to possess it. I will now return and do what I have been commanded.
I repeat that, if I had to describe in detail the way in which the Lord dealt with me in these early days, I should need much more intelligence than I have so as to be able to appreciate what I owe to Him, together with my own ingratitude and wickedness, all of which I have forgotten. May He be for ever blessed, Who has endured me for so long. Continues to tell of the grievous infirmities which she suffered and of the patience given her by the Lord, and of how He brings good out of evil, as will be seen from an incident which happened to her in the place where she went for treatment.
I forgot to tell how, in the year of my novitiate, I suffered long periods of unrest about things which in themselves were of little importance. I was very often blamed when the fault was not mine. This I bore very imperfectly, and with great distress of mind, although I was able to endure it all because of my great satisfaction at being a nun. When they saw me endeavouring to be alone and sometimes weeping for my sins, they thought that I was discontented and said so. I was fond of everything to do with the religious life but I could not bear anything which seemed to make me ridiculous.
I delighted in being thought well of; I was particular about everything I did; and all this I thought was a virtue, though that cannot serve me as an excuse, because I knew how to get pleasure for myself out of everything and so my wrongdoing cannot be excused by ignorance. Some excuse may be found in the imperfect organization of the convent. But I, in my wickedness, followed what I knew to be wrong and neglected what was good. At that time there was a nun who was afflicted by a most serious and painful illness: she was suffering from open sores in the stomach, which had been caused by obstructions, and these forced her to reject all her food.
Of this illness she soon died. I saw that all the nuns were afraid of it but for my own part I had only great envy of her patience. I begged God that He would send me any illness He pleased if only He would make me as patient as she. I do not think I was in the least afraid of being ill, for I was so anxious to win eternal blessings that I was resolved to win them by any means whatsoever.
And I am surprised at this; for, although I had not then, I think, such love for God as I have had since I began to pray, I had light enough to realize how trivial is the value of all things that pass away and how great is the worth of blessings which can be gained by despising them, for these are eternal. Well, His Majesty heard my prayer; for, before two years had passed, I myself had an illness which, though not of the same kind, was, I think, no less painful and troublesome. And this I suffered for three years, as I shall now relate.
When the time had come which I was awaiting in the place where, as I said, I was staying with my sister before undergoing my treatment, I was taken away, with the greatest solicitude for my comfort, by my father and sister and that nun who was my friend and had accompanied me when I had first left the convent because she loved me so dearly. It was now that the devil began to unsettle my soul, although God turned this into a great blessing.
Related High Spirits!, No. 3 from Stray Leaves, Op. 202
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