The relationship between W n and W t is far away from a linear curve but more like a circle for a finite V ex fluctuation. To constraint V ex fluctuation below a certain value, the fluctuations in thickness and charge control should roughly follow. Contours of Vex fluctuation width as a function of the thickness and doping level fluctuation widths Wt and Wn, under different fixed fluctuation widths of the residual carrier density in the non-dope layers Wnd. In conventional growth, it is more difficult to control doping than thickness.
Viewed from another angle, the result is suggestive of a large space to tradeoff between the controls in thickness and charge. This degree of epitaxy precision is quite a challenging technique. Obviously, the above method is very helpful and effective to quantitatively correlate the controllability of multiple structure parameters with the SPAD device homogeneity.
InP based APDs must use epitaxial materials. MOCVD growth is performed to satisfy the material uniformity requirements described above. As an array, there are isolating grooves channels between the pixels, Indium shots on the front side for interconnection and micro-lenses on the backside for light collection.
First the active p-n junction is formed by selective diffusion. The diffusion process includes, thermally evaporating one layer of solid Zn 3 P 2 , depositing one layer of SiN x to thoroughly cover Zn 3 P 2 , rapid thermal annealing to diffuse Zn into the chip, and etching off the SiN x and the resident Zn 3 P 2. To suppress the cross-talk between pixels, the isolation between pixels is, besides the deep grooves, aided by highly resistive p-n junction.
To increase the filling factor, light is incident on the backside, where there fabricated micro-lenses for each pixel. The microlenses here are not bonded onto the backside, but directly fabricated on the backside by specific dry-etching. The dashed line represents the fitting to a normal distribution.
The interconnection is a standard indium-shot inversion-bonding process. Under 1. APDs are being more and more widely and deeply studied to satisfy the requirement in weak light and single photon imaging. We would like to thank Profs. Yu, Z. Shi, O. Wang, X. Li, Q.
Dai, Y. Yang and Drs. Chen, X. Xie and Q. Wang, Q. Zhou and G. Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Edited by Kuan Chee. Edited by Alessandro Massaro. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Built by scientists, for scientists.
Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: Abstract Focal-plane avalanche photodiodes APDs are being more and more widely and deeply studied to satisfy the requirement in weak light and single photon imaging. Keywords avalanche photodiode focus plane laser detection and ranging. Introduction Avalanche photodiodes APDs have been widely studied and effectively applied in commercial, military, and academic fields [ 1 ] for a few decades. Linear-mode Si APDs The detection of weak light is technically significant in many application fields such as single molecule fluorescence, high-speed quantum cryptography, and infrared detection [ 21 , 22 , 23 ].
Precise control and uniformity Precise control of the device structure is a decisive step. ROIC optimization To realize highly accurate timing of the photon arrival, we use a time-digit-conversion TDC circuit with the aid of phase-shifting technique. Summary APDs are being more and more widely and deeply studied to satisfy the requirement in weak light and single photon imaging. More Print chapter. How to cite and reference Link to this chapter Copy to clipboard.
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